Converted from "10011-8.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK 365 FOREIGN DISHES
365 FOREIGN DISHES
JANUARY.
FEBRUARY.
MARCH.
APRIL.
MAY.
JUNE.
JULY.
AUGUST.
SEPTEMBER.
OCTOBER.
NOVEMBER.
DECEMBER.
END OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK 365 FOREIGN DISHES
START: FULL LICENSE
THE FULL PROJECT GUTENBERG LICENSE
1.F.

Converted from "10072.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
  1. To make VERMICELLY SOOP.
  2. CUCUMBER SOOP.
  3. To make HARE SOOP.
  4. To make Green PEASE SOOP.
  5. To make ONION SOOP.
  6. Common PEASE SOOP in Winter.
  7. To make PEASE SOOP in Lent.
  8. CRAW-FISH SOOP.
  9. To make SCOTCH SOOP.
  10. To make SOOP without Water.
  11. To stew a BRISKET of BEEF.
  12. To stew a RUMP of BEEF.
  13. To make OLIVES of BEEF.
  14. To fry BEEF-STEAKS.
  15. BEEF-STEAKS another Way.
  16. A SHOULDER of MUTTON forc'd.
  17. To stew a FILLET of MUTTON.
  18. To Collar a Breast of MUTTON.
  19. To Collar a Breast of MUTTON another Way.
  20. To Carbonade a Breast of MUTTON.
  21. A Chine of MUTTON roasted, with stew'd SELLERY.
  22. MUTTON-CHOPS.
  23. A forc'd LEG of MUTTON.
  24. To make FRENCH CUTLETS of MUTTON.
  25. To fry MUTTON STEAKS.
  26. To make artificial VENISON of MUTTON.
  27. How to brown Ragoo a BREAST of VEAL.
  28. A Herico of a BREAST of VEAL, French Way.
  29. To roll a BREAST of VEAL.
  30. A stew'd BREAST of VEAL.
  31. To stew a FILLET of VEAL.
  32. To make SCOTCH COLLOPS.
  33. To make VEAL CUTLETS.
  34. VEAL CUTLETS another Way.
  35. VEAL CUTLETS another Way.
  36. To Collar a CALF'S HEAD to eat hot.
  37. To Collar a CALF'S HEAD to eat cold.
  38. To make a CALF'S HEAD Hash.
  39. To hash a CALF'S HEAD white.
  40. A Ragoo of a CALF'S HEAD.
  41. To roast a CALF'S HEAD to eat like Pig.
  42. SAUCE for a NECK of VEAL.
  43. To boil a LEG of LAMB, with the LOYN fry'd about it.
  44. A LEG of LAMB boil'd with CHICKENS round it.
  45. A Fricassy of LAMB white.
  46. A brown Fricassy of LAMB.
  47. To make PIG eat like LAMB in Winter.
  48. How to stew a HARE.
  49. How to Jug a HARE.
  50. To roast a HARE with a pudding in the belly.
  51. To make a brown fricassy of RABBETS.
  52. A white fricassy of RABBETS.
  53. How to make pulled RABBETS.
  54. To dress Rabbets to look like MOOR-GAME.
  55. To make white Scotch COLLOPS.
  56. To boil DUCKS with ONION SAUCE.
  57. To stew DUCKS either wild or tame.
  58. To make a white fricassy of CHICKENS.
  59. How to make a brown fricassy of CHICKENS.
  60. CHICKENS SURPRISE.
  61. To boil CHICKENS.
  62. How to boil a TURKEY.
  63. How to make another Sauce for a Turkey.
  64. How to roast a TURKEY.
  65. To make a rich TURKEY PIE.
  66. To make a TURKEY A-la-Daube.
  67. POTTED TURKEY.
  68. How to jugg PIGEONS.
  69. MIRRANADED PIGEONS.
  70. To stew PIGEONS.
  71. To broil PIGEONS whole.
  72. Boiled PIGEONS with fricassy Sauce.
  73. To Pot PIGEONS.
  74. To stew PALLETS.
  75. To make a Fricassy of PIG'S EARS.
  76. To make a Fricassy of TRIPES.
  77. To make a Fricassy of VEAL-SWEET-BREADS.
  78. To make a white Fricassy of TRIPES, to eat like CHICKENS.
  79. To make a brown Fricassy of EGGS.
  80. To make a white Fricassy of EGGS.
  81. To stew EGGS in GRAVY.
  82. How to Collar a PIECE of BEEF to eat Cold.
  83. To roll a BREAST OF VEAL to eat cold.
  84. To pot TONGUES.
  85. How to pot VENISON.
  86. To pot all Sorts of WILD-FOWL.
  87. How to pot BEEF.
  88. To Ragoo a RUMP of BEEF.
  89. How to make a SAUCE for it.
  90. Sauce for boiled RABBETS.
  91. To salt a Leg of Mutton to eat like Ham.
  92. How to salt HAM or TONGUES.

Converted from "10520.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search

Converted from "10582-8.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
  1 pound cooked ham through food chopper. Add
  1 tablespoon marshmallow cream and
  3 eggs until light, add
  4 egg whites until stiff and dry. Beat in gradually
  6 eggs in top of double boiler. Cover with

Converted from "10632-8.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
  1. COLD WATER BREAD.
  2. EGG BREAD.
  3. GEM BREAD.
  4. HOT WATER ROLLS.
  5. OATCAKE.
  7. SHORTENED BREAD.
  8. MACARONI SOUP.
  9. PEA SOUP.
  10. POTATO SOUP.
  12. P.R. BEEF TEA SUBSTITUTE.
  12. MACARONI AND TOMATO.
  13. MUSHROOM AND TOMATO.
  14. NUT COOKERY.
  16. NUT RISSOLES.
  17. NUT PASTE.
  18. NUT AND LENTIL ROAST AND RISSOLES.
  19. PINE KERNELS, ROASTED.
  21. RICE, SAVOURY.
  22. RICE AND EGG FRITTERS.
  23. TOAD-IN-THE-HOLE.
  25. VEGETABLE MARROW AND NUT ROAST.
  27. VEGETABLE PIE.
  27. VEGETABLE MARROW.
  28. SUMMER PUDDING.
  29. TREACLE PUDDING.
  30. TRIFLE, SIMPLE.

Converted from "11067.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK REFORM COOKERY BOOK (4TH EDITION)
WHERE TO MARKET.
THE HEALTH FOOD SUPPLY CO.,
GLASGOW.
THE FIRST IN THE FIELD
OR
HOVIS
SOME FACTS,
FOR HOME USE.
ALL PARTICULARS FROM
MACCLESFIELD.
REFORM COOKERY.
WHY HESITATE?
TRY A TIN TODAY.
THEN YOU WILL ACT
AND ASK FOR MORE.
SOLE MANUFACTURERS
REFORM COOKERY BOOK.
UP-TO-DATE HEALTH COOKERY FOR THE TWENTIETH CENTURY.
BY
OVER 300 RECIPES
NEW AND ENLARGED EDITION, COMPLETING 20,000.
PREFACE TO FOURTH EDITION.
J. O. M.
SOUPS.
SAVOURIES.
LIGHT SAVOURIES.
A PERFECT NUT FAT!
PURE :: WHITE :: TASTELESS
PREPARED FROM FINEST NUTS ONLY
NUTTENE
A FEW OF "PITMAN" 1001 DELICIOUS
HEALTH FOODS
PERFECT HEALTH
"PITMAN" HEALTH FOOD STORES,
NUT FOODS.
CHEESE SAVOURIES.
'HYGIENIC TREATMENT'
MISCELLANEOUS SAVOURIES.
OF ALL GROCERS, CHEMISTS, AND STORES.
FOR HEALTH, STRENGTH, AND ENERGY
BREAKFAST SAVOURIES.
COLD SAVOURIES.
POTTED SAVOURIES.
VEGETABLES.
SALADS.
SAUCES.
CARNOS THE VEGETARIAN FOOD AND MEAT SUBSTITUTE,
DAINTY COOKING!
NO CLOTH.
THE "ARTOX" FLAVOUR
HAVE YOU HEARD OF IT?
"ARTOX"
"ARTOX"
"ARTOX"
BREAD.
PASTRY.
PUDDINGS AND SWEETS.
JAMS AND JELLIES.
HORS CONCOURS
MARMITE
THREE GOLD MEDALS AWARDED
WILL YOU TRY A CUP OF TEA
THE UNIVERSAL DIGESTIVE TEA
AGENTS WANTED.
THE BEST SOUP THICKENER.
ROBINSON'S PATENT BARLEY
KEEN ROBINSON & CO., LTD., LONDON,
BEVERAGES.
INVALID DIETARY.
INFANTILE MORTALITY
OUR MILK BEING MADE DAILY AT OUR OWN FACTORIES
MISCELLANEOUS.
MODEL DINNERS FOR A WEEK.
SUNDAY.
MONDAY.
TUESDAY.
WEDNESDAY.
THURSDAY.
FRIDAY.
SATURDAY.
FOOD REFORMERS KNOW
ADDITIONAL RECIPES.
SOUPS.
SAVOURIES.
MAPLETON'S NUT FOODS WARDLE, LANCASHIRE.
SAVOURY NUT MEATS.
WHOLEMEAL BISCUITS.
FRUITARIAN CAKES.
NUT CAKES
FULL PRICE LIST ON APPLICATION.
BREAD.
CAKES AND SCONES.
"REFORM" RESTAURANT AND TEA ROOMS,
PUDDINGS AND SWEETS.
HEALTH FOOD SPECIALTIES.
PORRIDGES,
NUT BUTTERS.
NUT MEATS.
FRUITARIAN CAKES.
73 NORTH HANOVER STREET.
BEVERAGES.
MISCELLANEOUS
NUTARIAN CAKES.
CONTENTS.
SOUPS
SAVOURIES
NUT SAVOURIES
CHEESE SAVOURIES
BREAKFAST DISHES
EGG DISHES
COLD SAVOURIES
POTTED SAVOURIES
SANDWICHES
VEGETABLES
SALADS
SAUCES
BREAD
PASTRY
CAKES AND SCONES
PUDDINGS AND SWEETS
JAMS AND JELLIES
BEVERAGES
INVALID DIETARY
MISCELLANEOUS
ADDITIONAL RECIPES.
SOUPS
SAVOURIES
CAKES AND SCONES
PUDDINGS AND SWEETS
HEALTH FOOD SPECIALTIES
RICHARDS & CO'S HEALTH FOOD STORE
73 N. HANOVER ST., EDINBURGH.
NOW ADDED
A FOOD REFORM RESTAURANT AND TEA ROOMS.
THE MANHU FOOD CO. LTD.
MANHU FLOUR FOR BROWN BREAD.
MANHU FOODS.
A COMPREHENSIVE LIST POST FREE.
WHERE TO DINE.
THE PEOPLE'S FRIEND,
CONTAINS
STUART CRANSTON.
END OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK REFORM COOKERY BOOK (4TH EDITION)
START: FULL LICENSE
THE FULL PROJECT GUTENBERG LICENSE
1.F.

Converted from "12238-8.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
  1. Milk which becomes sour and curdles within a few hours after it has been drawn, and before any cream forms on its surface. This is known in some sections as 'curdly' milk, and it comes from cows with certain inflammatory affections of the udder, or digestive diseases, or those which have been overdriven or worried.
  2. "Bitter-sweet milk" has cream of a bitter taste, is covered with
  3. 'Slimy milk' can be drawn out into fine, ropy fibers. It has an unpleasant taste, which is most marked in the cream. The causes which lead to the secretion of this milk are not known.
  4. 'Blue milk' is characterized by the appearance on its surface, eighteen or twenty-four hours after it is drawn, of small, indigo-blue spots, which rapidly enlarge until the whole surface is covered with a blue film. If the milk be allowed to stand a few days, the blue is converted into a greenish or reddish color. This coloration of the milk is due to the growth of microscopic organisms. The butter made from 'blue milk' is dirty-white, gelatinous, and bitter.
  5. 'Barnyard milk' is a term used to designate milk taken from unclean animals, or those which have been kept in filthy, unventilated stables.
  5. Sit conveniently near the table, but not crowded up close against it; and keep the hands, when not in use to convey food to the mouth, in the lap, beneath the table, never resting upon the table, toying with knife, fork, or spoon.

Converted from "12293-8.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
  1. The Accomplished Cook. By Robert May. 8vo, 1660. Fifth edition,
  3. A Breviate touching the Order and Government of the House of a
  4. Orders made by Henry, Prince of Wales, respecting his Household.
  5. The School of Good Manners. By William Phiston or Fiston. 8vo,
  Section 5. General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works.

Converted from "12350-8.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE INTERNATIONAL JEWISH COOK BOOK
THE INTERNATIONAL JEWISH COOK BOOK
FLORENCE KREISLER GREENBAUM
1600 RECIPES ACCORDING TO
THE FAVORITE RECIPES OF
SECOND EDITION
PUBLISHERS' NOTE
PREFACE
REMARKS
RULES FOR KASHERING
CONTENTS
PUBLISHERS' NOTE
TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
APPETIZERS
WHITE CAVIAR
CHOPPED ONION AND CHICKEN FAT
BRAIN (APPETIZER)
BLACK OLIVES
IMITATION PATE DE FOI GRAS
CHOPPED HERRING
CHEESE BALLS
EGG APPETIZER
DEVILED EGGS WITH HOT SAUCE
STUFFED YELLOW TOMATOES
A DELICIOUS APPETIZER
CELERY RELISH
SARDELLEN
STUFFED EGGS
NUT AND CHEESE RELISH
GRAPE-FRUIT COCKTAIL
AMBROSIA
PEACH COCKTAIL
RASPBERRY COCKTAIL
PINEAPPLE AND BANANA COCKTAIL
STRAWBERRY COCKTAIL
MUSK MELONS
FILLED LEMONS
SALTED PEANUTS
SALTED ALMONDS
SANDWICHES
ANCHOVY SANDWICHES
CELERY SANDWICHES
FISH SANDWICHES
NUT AND RAISIN SANDWICHES
BROWN BREAD SANDWICHES
CHEESE AND NUT SANDWICHES
LETTUCE SANDWICHES
OLIVE SANDWICHES
SARDINE SANDWICHES
DATE AND FIG SANDWICHES
FIG SANDWICHES
EGG SANDWICHES
CHESTNUT SANDWICHES
SALMON AND BROWN BREAD SANDWICHES
WHITE AND BROWN BREAD SANDWICHES
TOASTED CHEESE SANDWICHES
POACHED EGG SANDWICHES
MUSTARD SARDINE PASTE FOR SANDWICHES
CAVIAR AND SALMON SANDWICHES
RIBBON SANDWICHES
EGG AND OLIVE SANDWICHES
RUSSIAN SANDWICHES
SURPRISE SANDWICHES
CHICKEN SANDWICHES
CHICKEN SANDWICHES WITH MAYONNAISE
DEVILED TONGUE SANDWICHES
MINCED GOOSE SANDWICHES
VEAL SANDWICHES
BOILED, SMOKED, OR PICKLED TONGUE SANDWICHES
SOUPS
SOUP STOCK
WHITE STOCK
BROWN STOCK
BEET SOUP--RUSSIAN STYLE (FLEISCHIG)
BORSHT
SCHALET OR TSCHOLNT (SHABBAS SOUP)
BOUILLON
CHICKEN BROTH
JULIENNE SOUP
RICE BROTH
MOCK TURTLE SOUP
MUTTON BROTH
MULLIGATAWNY SOUP
FARINA SOUP
GREEN KERN SOUP
NOODLE SOUP
MUSHROOM AND BARLEY SOUP
OXTAIL SOUP
GREEN PEA SOUP
PIGEON SOUP
TURKEY SOUP
OKRA GUMBO SOUP (SOUTHERN)
TCHORBA--TURKISH SOUP
BARLEY SOUP
DRIED PEA SOUP
SOUR SOUP (FOR PURIM)
TOMATO SOUP
VEAL SOUP
VEGETABLE SOUP
HOW TO MAKE CREAM SOUPS
CREAM OF ALMOND SOUP
CREAM OF CELERY SOUP
CREAM OF ASPARAGUS SOUP
CREAM OF CAULIFLOWER SOUP
CREAM OF CORN SOUP
CREAM OF HERRING SOUP (RUSSIAN STYLE)
MILK, OR CREAM SOUP
FISH CHOWDER
MOCK FISH CHOWDER
GLOBE ARTICHOKE OR TURNIP SOUP
SPINACH SOUP
CREAM OF LETTUCE SOUP
CREAM OF TOMATO SOUP
CREAM OF LENTIL SOUP
ONION SOUP
CREAM WINE SOUP
VEGETABLE SOUP (MILCHIG)
BEER SOUP
SOUR MILK SOUP
POTATO SOUP
LEEK SOUP
RED WINE SOUP
SPLIT PEA SOUP (MILCHIG)
TOMATO SOUP WITH RICE
MILK AND CHEESE SOUP
BLACK BEAN SOUP
BARLEY AND VEGETABLE SOUP
BEER SOUP (PARVE)
BEET SOUP (RUSSIAN STYLE)
CHERRY SOUP
FRUIT SOUP
COLD SOUR SOUP
GARNISHES AND DUMPLINGS FOR SOUPS
NOODLES
PLAETCHEN
KREPLECH OR BUTTERFLIES
FORCE-MEAT FOR KREPLECH
BAKING POWDER DUMPLINGS
CROUTONS
SPATZEN
EGG CUSTARD
GRATED IRISH POTATO
FARINA DUMPLINGS
BOILED FLOUR BALLS WITH ALMONDS
EINLAUF (EGG DROP)
EGG DUMPLINGS FOR SOUPS
SCHWEM KLOESSE
DUMPLINGS FOR CREAM SOUPS
DROP DUMPLINGS
LIVER KLOESSE (DUMPLINGS)
FRITTER BEANS
SPONGE DUMPLINGS
FISH
TO CLEAN FISH
TO OPEN FISH
TO SKIN FISH
TO BONE FISH
BOILED FISH
BAKED FISH
BROILED FISH
JEWISH METHOD OF FRYING FISH
ANOTHER METHOD OF FRYING FISH
LEMON FISH
SWEET SOUR FISH
SWEET AND SOUR FISH
SWEET SOUR FISH WITH WINE
FISH STOCK
PIKE WITH EGG SAUCE
GEFILLTE FISCH
RUSSIAN FISH CAKES
GEFILLTE FISCH WITH EGG SAUCE
FILLED FISH--TURKISH STYLE
FRITADA
HECHT (PICKEREL)
FRESH COD OR STRIPED BASS
AHILADO SAUCE (TURKISH)
BOILED TROUT
FISH PIQUANT
SALMON CUTLETS
PAPRIKA CARP
REDSNAPPER WITH TOMATO SAUCE
FISH WITH HORSERADISH SAUCE
FISH WITH SAUERKRAUT
BAKED BLACK BASS
BAKED FLOUNDERS
BAKED FISH--TURKISH STYLE
SAUCE AGRISTOGA
ZUEMIMO SAUCE
SHAD ROE
BAKED SHAD
SCALLOPED FISH ROE
BAKED MACKEREL
STUFFED HERRING
FISH WITH GARLIC
BAKED CHOPPED HERRING
MARINIRTE (PICKLED) HERRING
SALT HERRING
BROILED SALT MACKEREL
BOILED SALT MACKEREL
MARINIRTE FISH
SOUSED HERRING
SALMON LOAF
CREAM SALMON
PICKLE FOR SALMON
KEDGEREE
SWISS CREAMED FISH
COD FISH BALLS
FINNAN HADDIE
FINNAN HADDIE AND MACARONI
SAUCES FOR FISH AND VEGETABLES
DRAWN BUTTER SAUCE
BEARNAISE SAUCE
CUCUMBER SAUCE
SAUCE HOLLANDAISE
MUSTARD SAUCE
PICKLE SAUCE
SARDELLEN, OR HERRING SAUCE
SAUCE VINAIGRETTE
ANCHOVY SAUCE
SAUCE PIQUANTE
SAUCE TARTARE
WHITE SAUCE (FOR VEGETABLES)
CREAM MUSTARD SAUCE
CURRY SAUCE
SPANISH SAUCE
TOMATO SAUCE
SAUCES FOR MEATS
APPLE SAUCE
BROWN SAUCE
CRANBERRY SAUCE
STEWED CRANBERRIES
SAUCE BORDELAISE
CARAWAY, OR KIMMEL SAUCE
ONION SAUCE
LEMON SAUCE
MINT SAUCE
RAISIN SAUCE
KNOBLAUCH SAUCE (GARLIC)
FRYING
PREPARED BREAD CRUMBS FOR FRYING
FRYING
TO RENDER GOOSE, DUCK OR BEEF FAT
TO MAKE WHITE HARD SOAP
CROQUETTES
CROQUETTES OF CALF'S BRAINS
MEAT CROQUETTES
MEAT AND BOILED HOMINY CROQUETTES
SWEETBREAD CROQUETTES
VEAL CROQUETTES
CAULIFLOWER CROQUETTES
EGGPLANT CROQUETTES (ROUMANIAN)
CROQUETTES OF FISH
POTATO CROQUETTES
SWEET POTATO CROQUETTES
PEANUT AND RICE CROQUETTES
CALF'S BRAINS (SOUR)
CALF'S BRAINS FRIED
BRAINS (SWEET AND SOUR)
DEVILED BRAINS
BRAINS WITH EGG SAUCE
JELLIED CHICKEN
PRESSED CHICKEN
HOME-MADE CHICKEN TAMALES
CHICKEN FRICASSEE, WITH NOODLES
SWEETBREADS
VEAL SWEETBREADS (FRIED)
CALF'S FEET, PRUNES AND CHESTNUTS
CALF'S FEET, SCHARF
ASPIC (SULZ)
GANSLEBER IN SULZ (GOOSE-LIVER ASPIC)
GOOSE LIVER
GOOSE LIVER WITH MUSHROOM SAUCE
SPANISH LIVER
STEWED MILT
GEFILLTE MILZ (MILT)
CALF'S LIVER SMOTHERED IN ONIONS
CHICKEN LIVERS
KISCHKES--RUSSIAN STYLE
KISCHKES
HASHED CALF'S LUNG AND HEART
TRIPE, FAMILY STYLE
BOILED TONGUE, (SWEET AND SOUR)
FILLED TONGUE
SMOKED TONGUE
SMOTHERED TONGUE
PICKLED BEEF TONGUE
MEATS
PAN ROAST BEEF
AN EASY POT ROAST
POT ROAST. BRAISED BEEF
BRISKET OF BEEF (BRUSTDECKEL)
BRISKET OF BEEF WITH SAUERKRAUT
SAUERBRATEN
ROLLED BEEF--POT-ROASTED
MOCK DUCK
MARROWBONES
ROAST BEEF (RUSSIAN STYLE)
WIENER BRATEN--VIENNA ROAST
TO BROIL STEAK BY GAS
BROILED BEEFSTEAK
FRIED STEAK WITH ONIONS
FRIED BEEFSTEAK
BRUNSWICK STEW
BREAST FLANK (SHORT RIBS) AND YELLOW TURNIPS
MEAT OLIVES
SHORT RIB OF BEEF, SPANISH
BRAISED OXTAILS
HUNGARIAN GOULASH
RUSSIAN GOULASH
BEEF LOAF
HAMBURGER STEAK
BITKI (RUSSIAN HAMBURGER STEAK)
CHOPPED MEAT WITH RAISINS (ROUMANIAN)
CARNATZLICH (ROUMANIAN)
BAKED HASH
SOUP MEAT
LEFT-OVER MEAT
SPAGHETTI AND MEAT
MEAT PIE
PICKLED MEAT--HOME-MADE CORNED BEEF
BOILED CORNED BEEF
ENCHILADAS
VIENNA SAUSAGE
SMOKED BEEF
ROAST VEAL
BREAST OF VEAL--ROASTED
STEWED VEAL
FRICASSEED VEAL WITH CAULIFLOWER
STUFFED SHOULDER OF VEAL
VEAL LOAF
SHOULDER OR NECK OF VEAL--HUNGARIAN STYLE
CALF'S HEARTS
IRISH STEW
LAMB AND MACARONI
LAMB STEW--TOCANE
CURRIED MUTTON
GEWETSH (SERVIAN)
ROAST MUTTON WITH POTATOES
BREAST OF MUTTON STEWED WITH CARROTS
MUTTON OR LAMB CHOPS
SHOULDER OF MUTTON STUFFED
POULTRY
TO DRESS AND CLEAN POULTRY
TO TRUSS A CHICKEN
ROAST CHICKEN
CHICKEN CASSEROLE
BOILED CHICKEN, BAKED
BROILED SPRING CHICKEN
FRIED SPRING CHICKEN
GIBLETS
CHICKEN FRICASSEE
CHICKEN WITH RICE
CHICKEN (TURKISH STYLE)
AMASTICH
CHICKEN WITH SPAGHETTI EN CASSEROLE
STUFFED CHICKEN (TURKISH STYLE)
SMOTHERED CHICKEN
CHICKEN CURRY
CHICKEN PAPRIKA WITH RICE
CHILI CON CARNE
PILAF (RUSSIAN STYLE)
PILAF (TURKISH STYLE)
SPANISH PIE
ROAST GOOSE
GESCHUNDENE GANS
GAENSEKLEIN
STUFFED GOOSE NECK (RUSSIAN STYLE)
STUFFED GOOSE NECK
GOOSE CRACKLINGS (GRIEBEN)
ROAST GOOSE BREASTS
GOOSE MEAT, PRESERVED IN FAT
SMOKED GOOSE BREAST
SMOKED GOOSE
STEWED GOOSE, PIQUANTE
MINCED GOOSE (HUNGARIAN STYLE)
DUCK
ROAST DUCK
SQUABS, OR NEST PIGEONS
BROILED SQUABS
PIGEON PIE
SQUAB EN CASSEROLE
ROAST TURKEY
STUFFED TURKEY NECK (TURKISH STYLE)
STUFFINGS FOR MEAT AND POULTRY
TO STUFF POULTRY
CRUMB DRESSING
BREAD DRESSING FOR FOWL
MEAT DRESSING FOR POULTRY
POTATO STUFFING
CHESTNUT STUFFING
RAISIN STUFFING
VEGETABLES
ASPARAGUS
CANNED ASPARAGUS
ARTICHOKES (FRENCH OR GLOBE)
JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE
FRENCH ARTICHOKES WITH TOMATO SAUCE
BEET GREENS
BOILED BEETS
BAKED BEETS
SOUR BUTTERED BEETS
CELERIAC
CAULIFLOWER
SPANISH CAULIFLOWER
CAULIFLOWER WITH BROWN CRUMBS
CAULIFLOWER OR ASPARAGUS (HUNGARIAN)
SCALLOPED CAULIFLOWER
CAULIFLOWER (ROUMANIAN)
CREAMED CELERY
LETTUCE
BOILED LETTUCE
GREEN LIMA BEANS
CARROTS
LEMON CARROTS
SIMMERED CARROTS
FLEMISH CARROTS
CARROTS WITH BRISKET OF BEEF
COMPOTE OF CARROTS (RUSSIAN STYLE)
CORN ON THE COB
CORN OFF THE COB
SUCCOTASH
CANNED CORN
DANDELIONS
STUFFED CUCUMBERS
FRIED CUCUMBERS
COLD SLAW
BOILED SAUERKRAUT
TO BOIL CABBAGE
FRIED CABBAGE
CREAMED NEW CABBAGE
HOT SLAW
CARROTS BOILED WITH CABBAGE
STEWED CABBAGE
FILLED CABBAGE
KAL DOLMAR
SAVOY CABBAGE WITH RICE
BELGIAN RED CABBAGE
RED CABBAGE
RED CABBAGE WITH CHESTNUTS AND PRUNES
VEGETABLE HASH
BAKED EGGPLANT
BROILED OR FRIED EGGPLANT
BROILED EGGPLANT
EGGPLANT FRIED IN OIL (TURKISH STYLE)
EGGPLANT (ROUMANIAN)
FRIED EGGPLANT
GREEN PEAS
SUGAR PEAS
CARROTS AND PEAS
GREEN PEAS AND RICE
GREEN PEPPERS
STUFFED PEPPERS
PEPPERS STUFFED WITH MEAT
STUFFED PEPPERS (ARDAY-INFLUS)
GREEN PEPPERS STUFFED WITH VEGETABLES
PEPPERS STUFFED WITH NUTS
STEWED PEPPERS
BROILED GREEN PEPPERS
RADISHES
BROILED MUSHROOMS
CREAMED MUSHROOMS
SCALLOPED MUSHROOMS
BOILED OKRA
BOILED ONIONS
SPANISH ONION RAREBIT
SCALLOPED ONIONS
STEWED SQUASH
PARSNIPS
SPINACH
SPINACH WITH CREAM SAUCE
SPINACH--FLEISCHIG
SAVOY CABBAGE
BRUSSELS SPROUTS
OYSTER PLANT--SALSIFY
SCALLOPED SALSIFY
PLUMS, SWEET POTATOES AND MEAT
TSIMESS
TURNIPS
BOILED TURNIPS
HASHED TURNIPS
KOHL-RABI WITH BREAST OF LAMB
KOHL-RABI
KALE
SWISS CHARD
STEWED TOMATOES
CANNED TOMATOES, STEWED
FRIED TOMATOES
FRIED GREEN TOMATOES
SCALLOPED TOMATOES
STUFFED TOMATOES
TOMATOES WITH RICE
TOMATO CUSTARDS
BAKED TOMATO AND EGG PLANT
CREOLE TOMATOES
STRING BEANS WITH TOMATOES
STRING BEANS WITH LAMB
STRING OR WAX-BEANS, SWEET AND SOUR
SWEET SOUR BEANS
STRING OR GREEN SNAP BEANS
POTATOES
POTATOES BOILED IN THEIR JACKETS
POTATOES FOR TWENTY PEOPLE
BOILED POTATOES
POTATO BALLS WITH PARSLEY
NEW POTATOES
MASHED POTATOES
ROAST POTATOES
CREAMED POTATOES
POTATOES AU GRATIN
GERMAN FRIED POTATOES
SARATOGA CHIPS
HASHED BROWN POTATOES, LYONNAISE
CURRIED POTATOES
POTATO CAKES
POTATOES AND CORN
FRENCH FRIED POTATOES
POTATOES WITH CARAWAY SEEDS
POTATOES AND PEARS
IMITATION NEW POTATOES
POTATO RIBBON
STEWED POTATOES WITH ONIONS
STEWED POTATOES, SOUR
STEWED POTATOES
STUFFED POTATOES
BOHEMIAN POTATO PUFF
POTATOES (HUNGARIAN STYLE)
POTATO PUFF
POTATO SURPRISE
BOILED SWEET POTATOES
FRIED SWEET POTATOES
FRENCH FRIED SWEET POTATOES
ROAST SWEET POTATOES
ROAST SWEET POTATOES WITH MEAT
SWEET POTATOES AND APPLES
CANDIED SWEET POTATOES
DRIED BEANS
SWEET SOUR BEANS AND LINZEN
BAKED BEANS WITH BRISKET OF BEEF
HARICOT BEANS AND BEEF
BEANS AND BARLEY
DRIED LIMA BEANS, BAKED
FARSOLE
FARSOLE DULCE
SLAITTA (ROUMANIAN)
BAKED LENTILS (LINZEN)
MEAT SUBSTITUTES
LENTIL SAUSAGES
MOCK CHILE CON CARNE
SPANISH BEANS
KIDNEY BEANS WITH BROWN SAUCE
NAHIT (RUSSIAN PEAS)
BOILED CHESTNUTS
ROASTED CHESTNUTS
CHESTNUTS WITH CELERY (TURKISH)
CHESTNUTS AND PRUNES
CHESTNUTS AND RAISINS
BOSTON ROAST
NUT LOAF
NUT ROAST
VEGETABLE MEAT PIE
TIME TABLE FOR COOKING
ROASTING
BROILING
BOILING
VEGETABLES
SALADS AND SALAD DRESSINGS
SALAD DRESSINGS
MAYONNAISE DRESSING
MAYONNAISE WITH WHIPPED CREAM
COLORED MAYONNAISE
WHITE MAYONNAISE
RUSSIAN DRESSING
BOILED DRESSING WITH OLIVE OIL (PARVE)
MUSTARD DRESSING
SOUR CREAM DRESSING
BOILED DRESSING
FRENCH DRESSING
DRESSING FOR LETTUCE
SALADS
GREEN SALADS
LETTUCE
CHIFFONADE SALAD
ASPARAGUS SALAD
BEET SALAD
BEET AND CAULIFLOWER SALAD
STRING BEAN SALAD
BOHEMIAN SALAD
BOILED CELERY ROOT SALAD
CELERY ROOT BASKETS
CHESTNUT SALAD
COLD SLAW OR CABBAGE SALAD
DRESSING FOR COLD SLAW
CUCUMBER SALAD
CAULIFLOWER SALAD
SALAD OF EGGPLANT (TURKISH STYLE)
EGGPLANT SALAD (ROUMANIAN)
TOMATO SALAD (FRENCH DRESSING)
MAYONNAISE OF TOMATOES (WHOLE)
STUFFED TOMATOES
STUFFED TOMATOES, CHEESE SALAD
LIMA BEAN SALAD
PEPPER AND CHEESE SALAD
GREEN PEPPERS FOR SALAD
PEPPER SALAD
SQUASH SALAD (TURKISH STYLE)
WALDORF SALAD
WATER-LILY SALAD
MARSHMALLOW SALAD
COTTAGE CHEESE SALAD
CREAM CHEESE SALAD
CREAM CHEESE SALAD WITH PINEAPPLES
FRUIT SALAD
FRUIT AND NUT SALAD
GRAPE-FRUIT SALAD
BANANA DAINTY
HUNGARIAN FRUIT SALAD
NUT SALAD
RUSSIAN FRUIT SALAD
FISH SALAD
FISH SALAD FOR TWENTY PEOPLE
MAYONNAISE OF FLOUNDER
HUNGARIAN VEGETABLE SALAD
SALMON SALAD
MAYONNAISE ESPECIALLY FOR SALMON
MACKEREL SALAD
MONTEREY SALAD
RUSSIAN SALAD
NIAGARA SALAD
CHICKEN SALAD
CHICKEN SALAD FOR TWENTY PEOPLE
BRAIN SALAD
SWEETBREAD SALAD
VEAL SALAD
NEAPOLITAN SALAD
POLISH SALAD, OR SALAD PIQUANT
FRESH FRUITS AND COMPOTE
BLUEBERRIES
RASPBERRIES
RASPBERRIES AND CURRANTS
STRAWBERRIES
BANANAS
CHILLED BANANAS
GRAPE FRUIT
ORANGES
PINEAPPLE
PEACHES
WATERMELONS
SNOWFLAKES
TUTTI-FRUTTI
RIPE TOMATOES
FROSTED APPLES
APPLE FLOAT
APPLE DELIGHT
APPLE COMPOTE
BAKED APPLES
STEAMED SWEET APPLES
FRIED APPLES
APPLE SAUCE VICTORIA
PEACH COMPOTE
COMPOTE OF RASPBERRIES
COMPOTE OF PINEAPPLE
COMPOTE OF PEARS
HUCKLEBERRY COMPOTE
RHUBARB SAUCE
BAKED RHUBARB
FIG SAUCE
DRIED FRUITS
STEWED PRUNES
BAKED PRUNES
PRUNES WITHOUT SUGAR
STEAMED PRUNES
MEHLSPEISE (FLOUR FOODS)
NOODLES
BROAD NOODLES
NOODLES WITH BUTTER
NOODLES WITH CHEESE
NOODLES AND APPLES
SCALLOPED NOODLES AND PRUNES
NOODLES AND MUSHROOMS
KAESE KRAEPFLI (CHEESE KREPLICH)
BOILED MACARONI
SPAGHETTI
BAKED MACARONI WITH CHEESE
SAVORY MACARONI
DUMPLINGS FOR STEW
SPAETZLEN OR SPATZEN
SOUR SPATZEN
LEBERKNADEL (CALF LIVER DUMPLINGS)
MILK OR POTATO NOODLES
KARTOFFEL KLOESSE (POTATO DUMPLINGS)
WIENER KARTOFFEL KLOESSE
APPLE SLUMP
BOILED APPLE DUMPLINGS
FARINA DUMPLINGS
HUCKLEBERRY DUMPLINGS
PLUM KNOEDEL (HUNGARIAN)
PEAR DUMPLING (BIRNE KLOESSE)
PEACH DUMPLINGS
CHERRY ROLEY-POLEY
SHABBAS KUGEL
KUGEL (SCHARFE)
KUGEL
NOODLE KUGEL
PEAR KUGEL
KRAUT KUGEL
APPLE KUGEL
RICE KUGEL
SCHALET DOUGH (MERBER DECK)
NOODLE SCHALET
CARROT SCHALET
SEVEN LAYER SCHALET
BOILED POTATO PUDDING
POTATO SCHALET
SWEET POTATO PUDDING
RAHM STRUDEL
CHERRY STRUDEL
MANDEL (ALMOND) STRUDEL
CABBAGE STRUDEL
QUARK STRUDEL (DUTCH CHEESE)
STRUDEL AUS KALBSLUNGE
RICE STRUDEL
CEREALS
LAWS ABOUT CEREALS
OATMEAL PORRIDGE
COLD OATMEAL
OATMEAL WITH CHEESE
BAKED APPLE WITH OATMEAL
WHEAT CEREALS
CORNMEAL MUSH
FARINA
HOMINY
MARMELITTA
POLENTA
BARLEY, TAPIOCA, SAGO, ETC
BOILED RICE
RICE IN MILK
RICE WITH GRATED CHOCOLATE
STEAMED RICE
APPLES WITH RICE
BOILED RICE WITH PINEAPPLE
BAKED RICE
SWEET RICE
EGGS BAKED IN RICE
RICE AND NUT LOAF
PILAF
SPANISH RICE
LEFT-OVER CEREALS
EGGS
TO PRESERVE EGGS
TO KEEP EGG YOLKS
POACHED OR DROPPED EGGS
BOILED EGGS
SCRAMBLED EGGS
FRIED EGGS
BAKED EGGS
BAKED EGGS WITH CHEESE
TOMATO WITH EGG
BAKED EGG WITH TOMATOES
PLAIN OMELET
SWEET OMELET
SWEET OMELET FOR ONE
SPANISH OMELET
RUM OMELET
SWEET ALMOND OMELET
CORN OMELET
HERB OMELET
POACHED EGGS WITH FRIED TOMATOES
EGGS POACHED IN TOMATO SAUCE
EGGS PIQUANT
WHITE SAUCE OMELET
EGGS WITH CREAM DRESSING
SCALLOPED EGGS
EGGS SPANISH
FRESH MUSHROOMS WITH EGGS
EGG RAREBIT
KROSPHADA
CURRIED EGGS
FRICASSEED EGGS
EGGS EN MARINADE
SCALLOPED EGGS (FLEISCHIG)
SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH BRAINS
SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH SAUSAGE
SMOKED BRISKET OF BEEF AND EGGS
CHEESE
COTTAGE CHEESE (POT CHEESE)
KOCH KAESE (BOILED CHEESE)
A DELICIOUS CREAM CHEESE
CHEESE TIMBALS FOR TWELVE PEOPLE
WELSH RAREBIT
GOLDEN BUCK
CHEESE BREAD
GREEN CORN, TOMATOES AND CHEESE
RICE AND CHEESE
MACARONI AND CHEESE
CHEESE OMELET
CHEESE AND SWEET GREEN PEPPERS
CHEESE FONDUE
TOMATOES, EGGS AND CHEESE (HUNGARIAN STYLE)
CRACKERS AND CHEESE
RAMEKINS OF EGG AND CHEESE
BREAD
FLOUR
YEAST
HOME MADE YEAST
TO MAKE BREAD
WHITE BREAD
INDIVIDUAL LOAVES
BUTTERBARCHES
BARCHES
POTATO BREAD
GRAHAM BREAD
GLUTEN BREAD
RAISIN BREAD
ROLLED OATS BREAD
POTATO-RYE BREAD
ZWIEBEL PLATZ
VARIETY BREAD
ROLLS
TEA ROLLS
CRESCENT ROLLS
BUNS
RAISIN OR CURRANT BUNS
BREAD STICKS
FRENCH ROLLS
BUTTERED TOAST
MILK OR CREAM TOAST
CINNAMON TOAST FOR TEA
ARME RITTER
COFFEE CAKES (KUCHEN)
RENDERED BUTTER
COFFEE CAKE (KUCHEN) DOUGH
KAFFEE KUCHEN (CINNAMON)
CINNAMON ROLLS OR SCHNECKEN
ABGERUEHRTER KUGELHOPF
PLAIN BUNT OR NAPF KUCHEN
CHOCOLATE COFFEE CAKE
POCKET BOOKS
BOLA
FRENCH COFFEE CAKE (SAVARIN)
MOHN (POPPY SEED) ROLEY POLEY
MOHN WACHTEL
MOHNTORTS
SMALL MOHN CAKES
BERLINER PFANNKUCHEN (PURIM KRAPFEN)
TOPFA DALKELN. CHEESE CAKES (HUNGARIAN)
PUFFS (PURIM)
KINDLECH
A CHEAP COFFEE CAKE
BOHEMIAN KOLATCHEN
ZWIEBACK
SOUR CREAM KOLATCHEN
RUSSIAN TEA CAKES
WIENER KIPFEL
SPICE ROLL
WIENER STUDENTEN KIPFEL
YEAST KRANTZ
STOLLEN
APPLE CAKE (KUCHEN)
CHEESE CAKE OR PIE
CHERRY CAKE
PEACH KUCHEN
FRESH PRUNE CAKE (KUCHEN)
PRUNE CAKE (KUCHEN)
HUCKLEBERRY KUCHEN
HUCKLEBERRY PIE
MUFFINS AND BISCUITS
BAKING-POWDER
BAKING-POWDER BATTERS
BROWN BREAD
CORN BREAD
BRAN BREAD
JOHNNIE CAKE
EGGLESS GINGERBREAD WITH CHEESE
GINGERBREAD
WHITE NUT BREAD
BAKING-POWDER BISCUITS
DROP BISCUIT
SOUR MILK BISCUITS
MUFFINS.
BRAN MUFFINS
GRAHAM MUFFINS
WHEAT MUFFINS
RICE MUFFINS
RYE FLOUR MUFFINS
GLUTEN GEMS
EGGLESS GINGER GEMS
POPOVERS
ONE-EGG WAFFLES
THREE-EGG WAFFLES
DOUGHNUTS
FRENCH DOUGHNUTS
CRULLERS
STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE (BISCUIT DOUGH)
DOUGH FOR OPEN FACE PIES
CINNAMON BUNS
FRUIT WHEELS
BUCKWHEAT CAKES
BREAD PANCAKES
RICE PANCAKES OR GRIDDLE CAKES
GRIMSLICH
POTATO PANCAKES
POTATO CAKES
SOUR MILK PANCAKES
FRENCH PANCAKE
CHEESE BLINTZES
SWEET BLINTZES
BLINTZES
FRITTER BATTER
BELL FRITTERS
APPLE FRITTERS
PINEAPPLE FRITTERS
ORANGE FRITTERS
MATRIMONIES
QUEEN FRITTERS
VEGETABLE FRITTERS
CORN FRITTERS
ERBSEN LIEVANZEN (DRIED PEA FRITTERS)
SQUASH FRITTERS
FRENCH PUFFS (WINDBEUTEL)
SHAVINGS (KRAUS-GEBACKENES)
SNIP NOODLES, FRIED
NOODLE PUFFS
SNOWBALLS (HESTERLISTE)
MACROTES
CAKES
GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING CAKES
TO BAKE CAKES
TIME-TABLE FOR BAKING CAKES
ONE EGG CAKE
LITTLE FRENCH CAKES
GRAFTON CAKE. LAYERS AND SMALL CAKES
CUP CAKE
GOLD CAKE
WHITE CAKE
MARBLE CAKE
LEMON CAKE
ORANGE CAKE
POTATO CAKE
POUND CAKE
BAKING-POWDER BUNT KUCHEN
QUICK COFFEE CAKE
BAKING-POWDER CINNAMON CAKE
GERMAN COFFEE CAKE (BAKING-POWDER)
COVERED CHEESE CAKE
BLITZ KUCHEN
KOENIG KUCHEN
NUT CAKE
LOAF COCOANUT CAKE
FRUIT CAKE (WEDDING CAKE)
APPLE SAUCE CAKE
SPICE CAKE
GREEN TREE LAYER CAKE AND ICING
EGGLESS, BUTTERLESS, MILKLESS CAKE
APPLE JELLY CAKE
CREAM LAYER CAKE
COCOANUT LAYER CAKE
CHOCOLATE LAYER CAKE
CARAMEL LAYER CAKE
HUCKLEBERRY CAKE
CREAM PUFFS
CHOCOLATE ECLAIRS
DOBOS TORTE
SPONGE CAKE
SMALL SPONGE CAKES
DOMINOES
LADY FINGERS
JELLY ROLL
ANGEL FOOD
SUNSHINE CAKE
MOCHA TORTS
PEACH SHORTCAKE
BREMEN APPLE TORTE
VIENNA PRATER CAKE
SAND TORTE
BROD TORTE
RYE BREAD TORTE
ZWIEBACK TORTE
CHOCOLATE BROD TORTE
BURNT ALMOND TORTE
CHOCOLATE TORTE
DATE TORTE
GERMAN HAZELNUT TORTE
LINZER TORTE
RUSSIAN PUNCH TORTE
CHESTNUT TORTE
NUT HONEY CAKE
ICINGS AND FILLINGS FOR CAKES
BOILED ICING
WHITE CARAMEL ICING
MAPLE SUGAR ICING
UNBOILED ICING
COCOANUT ICING
NUT ICING
ORANGE ICING
CHOCOLATE GLAZING
CHOCOLATE ICING, UNBOILED
INSTANTANEOUS FROSTING
PLAIN FROSTING
ALMOND ICING
MOCHA FROSTING
MARSHMALLOW FILLING
FIG FILLING
BANANA FILLING
CREAM FILLING
COFFEE FILLING
LEMON JELLY FOR LAYER CAKE
LEMON PEEL
LEMON EXTRACT
VANILLA EXTRACT
PIES AND PASTRY
PUFF PASTE OR BLAETTER TEIG
FLEISCHIG PIE CRUST
TO MAKE AND BAKE A MERINGUE
PIE CRUST (MERBERTEIG)
PARVE, COOKIE AND PIE DOUGH
TARTLETS
BANBURY TARTS
FRUIT TARTLETS
APPLE FLADEN (HUNGARIAN)
LINSER TART
MACAROON TARTS
LEMON TART (FLEISCHIG)
VIENNA PASTRY FOR KIPFEL
CHEESE STRAWS
LAMPLICH
MIRLITIOUS
INDIVIDUAL APPLE DUMPLINGS
WHIPPED CREAM PIE
GRATED APPLE PIE
APPLE CUSTARD PIE
SNOWBALLS
BLACKBERRY AND CURRANT PIE
CUSTARD PIE
CREAM PIE
COCOANUT PIE
COCOANUT LEMON PIE
MOCK MINCE PIE
MINCE PIE
PUMPKIN PIE
GRAPE PIE
HUCKLEBERRY PIE
PEACH CREAM TARTS
MOCK CHERRY PIE
PEACH CREAM PIE
PRUNE AND RAISIN PIE
PRUNE PIE
PLUM PIE
RHUBARB PIE
STRAWBERRY PIE
SWEET POTATO PIE
VINEGAR PIE
MOHNTORTE
RAISIN PIE
RAISIN AND RHUBARB PIE
COOKIES
FILLED BUTTER CAKES (DUTCH STUFFED MONKEYS)
SUGAR COOKIES
OLD-FASHIONED HAMBURGER COOKIES
MOTHER'S DELICIOUS COOKIES (MERBER KUCHEN)
VANILLA COOKIES
OLD-FASHIONED MOLASSES COOKIES
SOUR MILK COOKIES
HUNGARIAN ALMOND COOKIES
NUTMEG CAKES (PFEFFERNUESSE)
ANISE SEED COOKIES (SPRINGELE)
CARDAMOM COOKIES
PURIM CAKES
PARVE COOKIES
TEIGLECH
HONEY CORN CAKES
CROQUANTE CAKES (SMALL CAKES)
KINDEL
ALMOND MACAROONS WITH FIGS
ALMOND STICKS--FLEISCHIG
ALMOND STICKS
PLAIN WAFERS
POPPY SEED COOKIES (MOHN PLAETZCHEN)
CARAWAY SEED COOKIES
CITRON COOKIES
GINGER WAFERS
ANISE ZWIEBACK
HURRY UPS (OATMEAL)
PECAN, WALNUT, OR HICKORY NUT MACAROONS
DATE MACAROONS
MANDELCHEN
COCOANUT KISSES
CORNFLAKE COCOANUT KISSES
CHOCOLATE COOKIES
BASELER LOEKERLEIN (HONEY CAKES)
LEKACH
LEBKUCHEN
OLD-FASHIONED LEBKUCHEN
DESSERTS
BOILED CUSTARD
CARAMEL CUSTARD
CUP CUSTARD FOR SIX
CHOCOLATE CUSTARD
CHOCOLATE CORNSTARCH PUDDING
BLANC MANGE
FLOATING ISLAND
RED RASPBERRY OR CURRANT FLOAT
ROTHE GRITZE
APPLE SNOW
BOHEMIAN CREAM
PRUNE WHIP
RICE CUSTARD
PRUNE CUSTARD
TAPIOCA CUSTARD
WHIPPED CREAM
DESSERT WITH WHIPPED CREAM
AMBROSIA
MACAROON ISLAND
PISTACHIO CREAM
TIPSY PUDDING
APPLE AND LADY-FINGER PUDDING
FIG DESSERT
QUEEN OF TRIFLES
ICE-BOX CAKE
AUFLAUF
LEMON PUFFS
LEMON SAUCE
LEAF PUFFS
SAGO PUDDING WITH STRAWBERRY JUICE
APPLE TAPIOCA PUDDING
RHUBARB PUDDING
SCALLOPED PEACHES
CHESTNUT PUDDING
FARINA PUDDING WITH PEACHES
RICE PUDDING
PRUNE PUDDING
BROWN BETTY
APPLE AND HONEY PUDDING
QUEEN BREAD PUDDING
BREAD PUDDING
CORNMEAL PUDDING
BLACK BREAD PUDDING
DIMPES DAMPES (APPLE SLUMP)
BIRD'S NEST PUDDING
SUET PUDDING WITH PEARS
CORN PUDDING
CHERRY PUDDING
HUCKLEBERRY PUDDING
STEAMED PUDDINGS
ALMOND PUDDING
RYE BREAD PUDDING
NAPKIN PUDDING
STEAMED BERRY PUDDING
CARROT PUDDING
CHERRY PUDDING
DATE PUDDING
PRINCE ALBERT PUDDING
PEACH PUDDING
NOODLE PUDDING
PRUNE PUDDING
PLUM PUDDING (FOR THANKSGIVING DAY)
HONEY PUDDING
PUDDING SAUCES
BRANDY SAUCE
CARAMEL SAUCE
FOAM SAUCE
FRUIT SAUCES
HARD SAUCE
JELLY SAUCE
KIRSCH SAUCE
PRUNE SAUCE
VANILLA OR CREAM SAUCE
FROZEN DESSERTS
PREPARING SALT
FREEZING CREAMS AND WATER ICES
COFFEE ICE CREAM
FROZEN CUSTARD
APRICOT, PEACH, STRAWBERRY, BANANA OR PINEAPPLE CREAM
TUTTI-FRUTTI ICE CREAM
FROZEN PUDDINGS
MOCHA MOUSSE
MAPLE MOUSSE
MAPLE BISQUE
FROZEN CREAM CHEESE WITH PRESERVED FIGS
RUM PUDDING
CHERRY DIPLOMATE
NESSELRODE PUDDING
CANNED FRUIT FROZEN
PETER PAN DESSERT
FRUIT SHERBETS
APRICOT ICE
LEMON ICE
LEMON GINGER SHERBET
ORANGE ICE
PINEAPPLE ICE
PUNCH ICES
RASPBERRY ICE
WATERMELON SHERBET
CANDIES AND SWEETS
WHITE FONDANT
DIVINITY
FUDGE
PINOCHE
FRUIT LOAF
ORANGE CHIPS
CANDIED CHERRIES, PINEAPPLE AND OTHER FRUITS
STUFFED DATES
DATES STUFFED WITH GINGER AND NUTS
DATES STUFFED WITH FONDANT
STUFFED FIGS
STUFFED PRUNES
FROSTED CURRANTS
BEVERAGES
COFFEE
BOILED COFFEE
FILTERED COFFEE
TURKISH COFFEE
FRENCH COFFEE
COFFEE FOR TWENTY PEOPLE
BREAKFAST COCOA
RECEPTION COCOA
HOT CHOCOLATE
CHOCOLATE SYRUP
CHOCOLATE NECTAR
ICED CHOCOLATE
ICED COFFEE
TEA
TEA (RUSSIAN STYLE)
RUSSIAN ICED TEA
HOT WINE (GLUEH)
FRUIT DRINKS
PINEAPPLE LEMONADE
QUICK LEMONADE
LEMONADE IN LARGE QUANTITIES
FRUIT PUNCH FOR TWENTY PEOPLE
MILK LEMONADE
EGG LEMONADE
MARASCHINO LEMONADE
ORANGEADE
CLABBERED MILK
COLD EGG WINE
SODA CREAM
MULLED WINE
STRAWBERRY SHERBET
DELICIOUS AND NOURISHING SUMMER DRINK
SHERRY COBBLER
CLARET CUP
CORDIAL
EGG-NOG
UNFERMENTED GRAPE JUICE
OTHER FRUIT JUICES
FRUIT SYRUPS
RASPBERRY VINEGAR
BLACKBERRY WINE
BLACKBERRY CORDIAL
CHERRY SYRUP
CHERRY BRANDY
CHERRY BOUNCE
CIDER EGG NOG
HOT MILK PUNCH
CANNED FRUITS
GENERAL RULES
STERILIZING JARS, ETC.
CANNING FRUIT BAKED IN OVEN
BAKED CRANBERRIES OR CHERRY PRESERVES
BAKED CRAB-APPLE PRESERVES
BAKED SICKEL PEARS
BAKED QUINCES
CANNING FRUIT IN A WATER BATH
BLUEBERRIES
CANNED RASPBERRIES
BLACKBERRIES
CURRANTS
RASPBERRIES AND CURRANTS
CANNED GOOSEBERRIES
CANNED STRAWBERRIES
CANNED PEACHES
QUINCES
PEARS
CHERRIES
CHERRIES FOR PIES
PINEAPPLE
CANNED RHUBARB READY TO USE
CANNED RHUBARB
CANNED PLUMS
CANNING IN THE PRESERVING KETTLE
CANNED PEACHES
JELLIES AND PRESERVES
UTENSILS FOR JELLY MAKING
HOW TO TEST JELLY MADE AT HOME
TO COVER JELLY GLASSES
JELLIES
CURRANT JELLY
RASPBERRY AND CURRANT JELLY
RASPBERRY JELLY
BLACKBERRY JELLY
STRAWBERRY JELLY
GRAPE JELLY
CRAB-APPLE JELLY
APPLE JELLY
NEAPOLITAN JELLY
QUINCE JELLY
A WINTER JELLY
CRANBERRY JELLY
PRESERVED FRUIT
PRESERVED FIGS
PRESERVED CHERRIES
PRESERVED PEACHES
STRAWBERRIES IN THE SUN
PRESERVED STRAWBERRIES
STRAWBERRIES AND PINEAPPLE
PRESERVED PINEAPPLE
PRESERVED DAMSON PLUMS
DAMSON JAM
RASPBERRY JAM
JELLIED QUINCES
QUINCE CHEESE
PRESERVED QUINCES
CITRON PRESERVE
MARMALADES
ORANGE MARMALADE
AMBER MARMALADE
RHUBARB AND ORANGE MARMALADE
APPLE AND QUINCE CONSERVE
CHERRY CONSERVE
APPLE BUTTER
GRAPE PRESERVES
GERMAN PRUNE BUTTER
CHERRY MARMALADE
GRAPE CONSERVE
PEACH SYRUP
PEACH BUTTER
RAISIN COMPOTE
PICKLED PEACHES
SPICED GRAPES
GREEN OR YELLOW PLUM TOMATO PRESERVES
SPICED OR PICKLED APPLES
PRESERVED BLACKBERRIES
PICKLED CRAB-APPLES
WATERMELON PICKLE
PICKLED PLUMS
PICKLED CANTALOUPE OR MUSKMELONS
PICKLED HUSK TOMATOES
SPICED OR PICKLED CHERRIES
SPICED CUCUMBERS
PICKLED PEARS
GINGERED PEARS
SPICED GERMAN PLUMS
GOOSEBERRY RELISH
PICKLED FIGS
BRANDIED FRUITS
FRENCH PRUNES IN COGNAC
BRANDIED PEACHES
BRANDIED CHERRIES
BRANDIED QUINCES
BRANDIED PEARS
CANNED VEGETABLES
VEGETABLES PRESERVED IN BRINE
EARLY FALL VEGETABLES
MOCK OLIVES
STRING BEANS (RAW)
BOILED BEANS
CORN
PICKLES AND RELISHES
MOTHER'S DILL PICKLES
DILL PICKLES FOR WINTER USE
GREEN DILL TOMATOES
SMALL DILL PICKLES
TEUFELSGURKEN (HOT PICKLES)
MUSTARD PICKLES
SALT PICKLES
SALZGURKEN
DELICIOUS MUSTARD PICKLES (SENFGURKEN)
CHOW-CHOW
CUCUMBERS IN OIL
SWEET PICKLES
MIXED PICKLES
PICKLED CAULIFLOWER
PICKLED BEANS
PICKLED ONIONS
GREEN TOMATO PICKLE (FRENCH PICKLE)
PEPPER MANGOES
PICCALILLI
PREPARED MUSTARD
BEET AND HORSERADISH RELISH
CABBAGE, BEET AND HORSERADISH RELISH
PICKLED BEETS
PICKLED RED CABBAGE (HUNGARIAN STYLE)
SAUERKRAUT
CORN RELISH
MUSHROOM CATSUP
TOMATO CATSUP
TOMATO SAUCE (CHILI)
PASSOVER DISHES
CAKES, PUDDINGS, SAUCES, WINES, ETC.
PESACH BORSHT
ROSEL, BEET VINEGAR
YOM-TOV SOUP
PALESTINE SOUP
POTATO FLOUR NOODLES
MATZOTH MEAL NOODLES
MARROW DUMPLINGS
ALMOND BALLS
FILLED MATZOTH KLEIS
ENGLISH LEMON STEWED FISH
SOLE WITH WINE (FRENCH RECIPE)
RED MULLET IN CASES
KENTUCKY CHRIMSEL
MATZOTH WITH SCRAMBLED EGGS (UEBERSCHLAGENE MATZOTH)
SCRAMBLED MATZOTH
ZWIEBEL MATZOTH
MATZOTH EIRKUCHEN
MATZOTH MEAL MACAROONS
PIE CRUST
MAMOURAS (TURKISH)
GERMAN PUFFS
STEWED SWEETBREADS
BEEFSTEAK PIE
POTATO PLUM KNOEDEL (HUNGARIAN)
BIRMOILIS (TURKISH)
POTATO MARBLES
MINA (TURKISH)
PRUNE BLINTZES
MEAT BLINTZES
MATZOTH SPICE CAKE
MATZOTH MEAL CAKE
MATZOTH KUGEL
MATZOTH SHALET
POTATO PUDDING
MATZOTH PLUM PUDDING
BATTER PUDDING
BEOLAS
COCOANUT PUDDING
CARROT PUDDING
ALMOND HILLS
APPLE SPONGE PUDDING
GRATED APPLE PUDDING
APPLE PUDDING
FOAM TORTE
POTATO FLOUR SPONGE CAKE
STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE WITH MATZOTH-MEAL
HASTY PUDDING
POTATO FLOUR PUDDING
PESACH CAKE WITH WALNUTS
DATE CAKE
CHOCOLATE CAKE
COOKIES
ALMOND CAKE
ALMOND MACAROONS
CINNAMON STICKS
IMBERLACH
KREMSLEKH
EGG MARMALADE
RADISH PRESERVES (RUSSIAN STYLE)
BEET PRESERVES (RUSSIAN)
PRUNES
LEMON PRESERVES
CANDIED LEMON AND ORANGE PEEL
WINE SAUCE
RUM SAUCE
SUGAR SYRUP
MOCK WHIPPED CREAM FILLING
LEMON CREAM FILLING
FILLING FOR CHRIMSEL
STRAWBERRY DESSERT
INDEX
APPETIZERS
SANDWICHES
SOUPS
GARNISHES AND DUMPLINGS FOR SOUPS
FISH
SAUCES FOR FISH AND VEGETABLES
SAUCES FOR MEATS
FRYING
MEATS
POULTRY
STUFFINGS FOR MEAT AND POULTRY
VEGETABLES
TIME TABLE FOR COOKING
SALAD DRESSINGS
SALAD AND SALAD DRESSINGS
FRESH FRUITS AND COMPOTE
MEHLSPEISE (FLOUR FOODS)
CEREALS
EGGS
CHEESE
BREAD
COFFEE CAKES (KUCHEN)
MUFFINS AND BISCUITS
PANCAKES, FRITTERS, ETC.
CAKES
ICINGS AND FILLINGS FOR CAKES
PIES AND PASTRY
COOKIES
DESSERTS
STEAMED PUDDINGS
PUDDING SAUCES
FROZEN DESSERTS
CANDIES AND SWEETS
BEVERAGES
CANNED FRUITS
JELLIES AND PRESERVES
PRESERVED FRUIT
BRANDIED FRUITS
CANNED VEGETABLES
VEGETABLES PRESERVED IN BRINE
PICKLES AND RELISHES
PASSOVER DISHES
ALPHABETICAL INDEX
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
Y
TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
MEASUREMENT OF FOOD MATERIALS
END OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE INTERNATIONAL JEWISH COOK BOOK
START: FULL LICENSE
THE FULL PROJECT GUTENBERG LICENSE
1.F.

Converted from "12815-8.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
  Section 5. General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works.

Converted from "13177-8.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK CHOCOLATE
ESTABLISHED DORCHESTER
PLAIN CHOCOLATE
CHOCOLATE, VIENNA STYLE
BREAKFAST COCOA
CHOCOLATE LAYER CAKE
CHOCOLATE CAKE
CHOCOLATE MARBLE CAKE
CHOCOLATE BISCUIT
CHOCOLATE WAFERS
CINDERELLA CAKES
CHOCOLATE COOKIES
CHOCOLATE GINGERBREAD
VANILLA ICING
CHOCOLATE ICING
CHOCOLATE PROFITEROLES
CHOCOLATE ICE-CREAM
CHOCOLATE CREAM PIES
CHOCOLATE MOUSSE
CHOCOLATE CHARLOTTE
CHOCOLATE BAVARIAN CREAM
CHOCOLATE CREAM
CHOCOLATE BLANC-MANGE
CHOCOLATE CREAM RENVERSEE
BAKED CHOCOLATE CUSTARD
CHOCOLATE PUDDING
CHOCOLATE MERINGUE PUDDING
MILTON PUDDING
SNOW PUDDING
CHOCOLATE SAUCE
CHOCOLATE CANDY
CREAM CHOCOLATE CARAMELS
SUGAR CHOCOLATE CARAMELS
CHOCOLATE CONES
GENESEE BON-BONS
CHOCOLATE SYRUP
REFRESHING DRINKS FOR SUMMER
A FEW SUGGESTIONS IN REGARD TO CHOCOLATE
FORMULA FOR MAKING THREE GALLONS OF BREAKFAST COCOA
CRACKED COCOA
VANILLA CHOCOLATE WITH WHIPPED CREAM
CHOCOLATE CREAM PIE
CHOCOLATE FILLING
MERINGUE
COCOA STICKS
COCOA FROSTING
COCOA SAUCE
COCOA CAKE
COCOA MERINGUE PUDDING
CHOCOLATE ALMONDS
HOT CHOCOLATE SAUCE
COCOA SPONGE CAKE
CHOCOLATE FROSTING
CHOCOLATE CAKE, OR DEVIL'S FOOD
CHOCOLATE ICE-CREAM
CHOCOLATE WHIP
COCOA MARBLE CAKE
CHOCOLATE MARBLE CAKE
CHOCOLATE JELLY
COTTAGE PUDDING
VANILLA SAUCE
CHOCOLATE SAUCE
COCOA BISCUIT
COCOA FUDGE
PLAIN CHOCOLATE
COCOA DOUGHNUTS
COCOA SPONGE CAKE
COCOA MARBLE CAKE
COCOA BUNS
MRS. RORER'S CHOCOLATE CAKE
MRS. LINCOLN'S CHOCOLATE CARAMELS
MISS FARMER'S CHOCOLATE NOUGAT CAKE
MRS. ARMSTRONG'S CHOCOLATE PUDDING
MRS. ARMSTRONG'S CHOCOLATE CHARLOTTE
CHOCOLATE JELLY WITH CRYSTALLIZED GREEN GAGES
MRS. BEDFORD'S CHOCOLATE CRULLERS
MRS. BEDFORD'S HOT COCOA SAUCE FOR ICE-CREAM
MRS. BEDFORD'S CHOCOLATE MACAROONS
MRS. EWING'S CREAMY COCOA
MRS. EWING'S CREAMY CHOCOLATE
MRS. HILL'S CHOCOLATE PUFFS
MISS FARMER'S CHOCOLATE CREAM CANDY
MRS. SALZBACHER'S CHOCOLATE HEARTS
CHOCOLATE FUDGE WITH FRUIT
CHOCOLATE MACAROONS
PETITS FOUR
POTATO CAKE
SPANISH CHOCOLATE CAKE
CHOCOLATE CARAMEL WALNUTS
CHOCOLATE DIPPED PEPPERMINTS
CHOCOLATE PEANUT CLUSTERS
CHOCOLATE COATED ALMONDS
PLAIN AND CHOCOLATE DIPPED PARISIAN SWEETS
STUFFED DATES, CHOCOLATE DIPPED
CHOCOLATE OYSTERETTES, PLAIN AND WITH CHOPPED FIGS
TURKISH PASTE WITH FRENCH FRUIT, CHOCOLATE FLAVORED
CHOICE CHOCOLATE PECAN PRALINES
VASSAR FUDGE
SMITH COLLEGE FUDGE
WELLESLEY MARSHMALLOW FUDGE
DOUBLE FUDGE
MARBLED FUDGE
FUDGE HEARTS OR ROUNDS
MARSHMALLOW FUDGE
CHOCOLATE DIPPED FRUIT FUDGE
FRUIT FUDGE
CHOCOLATE FOR DIPPING
CHOCOLATE COCOANUT CAKES
BAKER'S CHOCOLATE "DIVINITY"
CHOCOLATE NOUGATINES
PLAIN CHOCOLATE CARAMELS
CHOCOLATE NUT CARAMELS
RIBBON CARAMELS
CHOCOLATE LAYERS
WHITE LAYER
FONDANT
ALMOND CHOCOLATE CREAMS
CENTERS
CHOCOLATE COATING
CHERRY CHOCOLATE CREAMS
CENTERS
CHOCOLATE COATING
CHOCOLATE PEPPERMINTS
FIG-AND-NUT CHOCOLATES
CHOCOLATE MARSHMALLOWS
MAPLE FONDANT ACORNS
CHOCOLATE ALMOND BARS
ALMOND FONDANT STICKS
ALMOND FONDANT BALLS
WALNUT CREAM-CHOCOLATES
TO MOLD CANDY IN STARCH IMPRESSIONS
CHOCOLATE BUTTER CREAMS
FONDANT FOR SOFT CHOCOLATE CREAMS
ROSE CHOCOLATE CREAMS
PISTACHIO CHOCOLATE CREAMS
SURPRISE CHOCOLATE CREAMS
CHOCOLATE PEANUT BRITTLE
CHOCOLATE POP CORN BALLS
CHOCOLATE MOLASSES KISSES
ESTABLISHED 1780
BAKER'S BREAKFAST COCOA
BAKER'S CHOCOLATE
BAKER'S VANILLA CHOCOLATE
CARACAS CHOCOLATE
CENTURY CHOCOLATE
AUTO-SWEET CHOCOLATE
GERMAN SWEET CHOCOLATE
DOT CHOCOLATE
CRACKED COCOA OR COCOA NIBS
SOLUBLE COCOA
CHOCOLATE FOR CONFECTIONERS' USE
VANILLA TABLETS
COCOA-BUTTER
COCOA-SHELLS
INDEX TO RECIPES
MISS PARLOA'S
MISS BURR'S
MISS ROBINSON'S
MRS. RORER'S
MRS. LINCOLN'S
MISS FARMER'S
MRS. ARMSTRONG'S
MRS. BEDFORD'S
MRS. EWING'S
MRS. HILL'S
MRS. SALZBACHER'S
MRS. HILL'S CANDY RECIPES
NO OTHER FOOD PRODUCT HAS A LIKE RECORD.
WALTER BAKER & CO. LTD.
ESTABLISHED 1780.
52 HIGHEST AWARDS.
END OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK CHOCOLATE
START: FULL LICENSE
THE FULL PROJECT GUTENBERG LICENSE
1.F.

Converted from "13669-8.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
  1 square unsweetened chocolate = 1 ounce
  1 egg
  1 cup prunes or dates
  1 teaspoon salt
  1 tablespoon shortening
  1 teaspoon salt
  1 teaspoon salt
  2 to 4 tablespoons shortening
  2 cups flour
  2 cups flour
  2 cups whole wheat flour
  2 teaspoons Dr. Price's Baking Powder
  2 cups stale bread crumbs
  2 teaspoons Dr. Price's Baking Powder
  2 cups flour
  2 cups green corn put through food chopper
  2 cups flour
  2 cups buckwheat flour
  2 teaspoons Dr. Price's Baking Powder
  2 cups cooked corn
  2 teaspoons Dr. Price's Baking Powder
  3 tablespoons shortening
  3 tablespoons shortening
  3 tablespoons shortening
  3 tablespoons shortening
  3 cups confectioners' sugar
  3 tablespoons cold water
  4 eggs
  4 medium sized apples
  4 tablespoons cornstarch
  4 eggs
  5 cups boiling water

Converted from "13887.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
  1 lb. each of artichokes and potatoes, 1 Spanish onion, 1 oz. of butter, 1 pint of milk, and pepper and salt to taste. Peel, wash, and cut into dice the artichokes, potatoes, and onion. Cook them until tender in 1 quart of water with the butter and seasoning. When the vegetables are tender rub them through a sieve. Return the liquid to the saucepan, add the milk, and boil the soup up again. Add water if the soup is too thick. Serve with Allinson plain rusks, or small dice of bread fried crisp in butter or vege-butter.
  1 lb. of haricot beans, 1/2 lb. of onions, 1 lb. of turnips, 2 carrots, 2 sticks of celery, 1 teaspoonful of mixed herbs, 1/2 oz. of parsley, 1 oz. of butter, 2 quarts of water, pepper and salt to taste. Cut up the vegetables and set them to boil in the water with the haricot beans (which should have been steeped over night in cold water), adding the butter, herbs, and seasoning. Cook all very gently for 3-1/2 to 4 hours, stirring occasionally. When the beans are quite tender, rub the soup through a sieve, adding more water if needed; return it to the saucepan, add the parsley chopped up finely, boil it up and serve.
  1 fair-sized cabbage, a large Spanish onion, 1-1/2 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste, 1/2 saltspoonful of nutmeg, 1-1/2 pints of milk, 2 tablespoonfuls of Allinson fine wheatmeal. After preparing and washing the cabbage, shred up very fine, chop up the onion, set these two in a saucepan over the fire with 1 quart of water, the butter and seasoning, and let all cook gently for 1 hour, or longer it the vegetables are not quite tender. Add the milk and thickening when the vegetables are thoroughly tender, and let all simmer gently for 10 minutes; serve with little squares of toasted or fried bread, or Allinson plain rusks.
  1 medium-sized cabbage, 1 lb. of potatoes, 1 oz. of butter, 3 pints of milk and water equal parts, pepper and salt to taste, 1 dessertspoonful of finely chopped parsley, and 2 blades of mace, and 1 dessertspoonful of Allinson fine wheatmeal. Wash the cabbage and shred it finely, peel the potatoes and cut them into small dice; boil the vegetables in the milk and water until quite tender, adding the mace, butter, and seasoning. When quite soft, rub the wheatmeal smooth with a little water, let it simmer with the soup for 5 minutes, add the parsley, and serve.
  2 pints of water, 1 pint of milk, 1 large tablespoonful of capers, 1/2 lemon, 2 eggs, 1-1/2 oz. of Allinson fine wheatmeal, 1/2 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste. Boil the milk and water and butter, with seasoning to taste; thicken it with the wheatmeal rubbed smooth with a little milk. Chop up the capers, add them and let the soup cook gently for 10 minutes; take it off the fire, beat up the eggs and add them carefully, that they may not curdle; at the last add the juice of the half lemon, re-heat the soup without allowing it to boil, and serve.
  4 good-sized carrots, 1 head of celery, 1 onion, 3 oz. of Allinson wholemeal bread without crust, 1 oz. of butter, pepper and salt, and 1 blade of mace. Wash, scrape, and cut the carrots into dice. Prepare and cut up the onions and celery. Set the vegetables over the fire with 3 pints of water, adding the mace and seasoning. Let all cook until quite soft, which will probably be in 1-1/2 hours. If the carrots are old, they will take longer cooking. When the vegetables are tender, rub all through a sieve, return the soup to the saucepan, add the butter, allow it to boil up, and serve with sippets of toast.
  4 good-sized carrots, 1 small head of celery, 1 fair-sized onion, 1 turnip, 3 oz. of breadcrumbs, 1-1/2 oz. of butter, 1 blade of mace, pepper and salt to taste. Scrape and wash the vegetables, and cut them up small; set them over the fire with 3 pints of water, the butter, bread, and mace. Let all boil together, until the vegetables are quite tender, and then rub them through a sieve. Return the mixture to the saucepan, season with pepper and salt, and if too thick add water to the soup, which should be as thick as cream, boil the soup up, and serve.
  6 oz. of cold boiled macaroni, 1 large Spanish onion, 1 carrot, 1/2 lb. of tomatoes, 1/4 lb. of mushrooms, 2 oz. of grated cheese, 1 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste. Wash, prepare, and cut up the vegetables in small pieces. Cover them with water and stew them until tender, adding the butter and seasoning. When tender add the macaroni cut into finger lengths, and the cheese.
  6 oz. of coarse oatmeal, the outer part of a head of celery, 1 Spanish onion, 1 turnip, 1 oz. of butter, and pepper and salt. Wash and cut the vegetables up small, set them over the fire with 2 quarts of water. When boiling, stir in the oatmeal and allow all to cook gently for 2 hours. Rub the mixture well through a sieve, adding hot water it necessary. Return the soup to the saucepan, add the butter and pepper and salt, and let it boil up. The soup should be of a smooth, creamy consistency. Serve with sippets of toast or Allinson plain rusks.
  8 oz. of rice, 1/2 oz. of butter, 1 good teaspoonful of curry, 2 eggs, pepper and salt to taste, some oil or butter for frying, and 1 teacupful of raspings. Boil the rice in 1 pint of water, adding the butter and seasoning. When the rice is dry and tender mix in the curry, beat up 1 egg, and bind the rice with that. Form into balls, dip them in the other egg, well beaten, then into the raspings and fry them a nice brown in oil or vege-butter.
  8 breakfastcupfuls of Allinson breadcrumbs, 3 eggs, 2 lbs. of tomatoes, 2 finely chopped onions, 1/2 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste, a little boiling milk; 1 dessertspoonful of finely chopped parsley. Cut the tomatoes into slices, and stew them gently with 1 oz. of the butter, the onions and seasoning for 10 minutes, then add the parsley. Soak the breadcrumbs with enough hot milk to just moisten them through, add the eggs beaten up. Grease a pie-dish, place in it first a layer of breadcrumbs, then one of tomatoes and so on until full, finishing with breadcrumbs. Put the rest of the butter in little bits on the top of the pie, and bake it until lightly brown.
  8 medium-sized tomatoes, 1 breakfastcupful of breadcrumbs, 1 teaspoonful each of finely chopped parsley, mint, and eschalot, 1 egg, pepper and salt, 1 oz. of butter. Make a stuffing of the breadcrumbs, parsley, mint, and eschalots, adding the egg well beaten, and seasoning. Make a small opening in the tomato and take out the seeds with a teaspoon; fill the tomatoes with the stuffing, put them into a tin, place a bit of butter on each, pour 1/2 a teacupful of water in the tin, and bake the tomatoes 15 minutes.
  8 oz. of Parmesan or other good dry, cooking cheese, 4 eggs, 1 oz. of
  10 oz. of fresh grated cocoanut, 8 oz. of Allinson breadcrumbs, 4 oz. of stoned muscatels, chopped small, 3 oz. of sugar, 3 eggs, 1 pint of milk. Mix the breadcrumbs, cocoanut; muscatels, sugar, and the butter (oiled); add the yolks of the eggs, well beaten, whip the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, add these to the mixture just before turning the pudding into a buttered pie-dish; bake until golden brown.
  12 small sponge cakes, 1/2 lb. jam, 1 pint of custard made with
  12 oz. of Allinson wholemeal bread, 1/2 lb. fresh fruit, and a large mug of Brunak or cocoa satisfy them well; or instead of cocoa they may have milk and water, lemon water, lemonade, oatmeal water, or some harmless non-alcoholic drink. Another good meal is made from 1/2 lb. of the wholemeal bread and butter, and a 1/4 lb. of peas pudding spread between the slices. The peas can be flavoured with a little pepper, salt, and mustard by those who still cling to condiments. 12 oz. of the wholemeal bread, 2 or 3 oz. of cheese, some raw fruit, or an onion, celery, watercress, or other greenstuff, with a large cup of fluid, form another good meal. 1/2 lb. of coarse oatmeal or crushed wheat made into porridge the day before, and warmed up at midday, will last a man well until he gets home at night. Or a boiled bread pudding may be taken to work, warmed and eaten. This is made from the wholemeal bread, which is soaked in hot water until soft, then crushed or crumbled, some currants or raisins are then mixed with this, a little soaked sago stirred in; lastly, a very little sugar and spice are added as a flavouring. This mixture is then tied up in a pudding cloth and boiled, or it may be put in a pudding basin covered with a cloth, and boiled in a saucepan. A pleasing addition to this pudding is some finely chopped almonds, or Brazil nuts.

Converted from "13923-8.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE WHITEHOUSE COOKBOOK (1887)
THE
WHITE HOUSE
COOK BOOK
COOKING, TOILET AND HOUSEHOLD RECIPES,
MENUS, DINNER-GIVING, TABLE ETIQUETTE,
CARE OF THE SICK, HEALTH SUGGESTIONS,
THE WHOLE COMPRISING
A COMPREHENSIVE CYCLOPEDIA OF INFORMATION FOR THE HOME
BY
MRS. F.L. GILLETTE
AND
TO THE WIVES OF OUR PRESIDENTS, THOSE NOBLE WOMEN WHO HAVE GRACED THE
PUBLISHERS' PREFACE
THE PUBLISHERS.
CONTENTS.
WHITE HOUSE COOK BOOK.
CARVING.
BEEF.
HIND-QUARTER.
FORE-QUARTER.
VEAL.
HIND-QUARTER.
FORE-QUARTER.
MUTTON.
PORK.
VENISON.
SIRLOIN OF BEEF.
BREAST OF VEAL.
A FILLET OF VEAL.
NECK OF VEAL.
LEG OF MUTTON.
FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB.
HAM.
HAUNCH OF VENISON
TURKEY.
ROAST GOOSE.
FOWLS.
ROAST DUCK.
PARTRIDGES.
PHEASANT.
PIGEONS.
MACKEREL.
BOILED SALMON.
SOUPS.
HERBS AND VEGETABLES USED IN SOUPS.
STOCK.
WHITE STOCK.
TO CLARIFY STOCK.
BEEF SOUP.
SCOTCH MUTTON BROTH.
GAME SOUP.
CONSOMME SOUP.
JULIENNE SOUP.
CREAM OF SPINACH.
CHICKEN CREAM SOUP.
PLAIN ECONOMICAL SOUP.
OX-TAIL SOUP.
CORN SOUP.
CREAM OF ASPARAGUS.
GREEN PEA SOUP.
DRIED BEAN SOUP.
TURTLE SOUP FROM BEANS.
PHILADELPHIA PEPPER POT.
SQUIRREL SOUP.
MOCK TURTLE SOUP, OF CALF'S HEAD.
GREEN TURTLE SOUP.
MACARONI SOUP.
TURKEY SOUP.
GUMBO OR OKRA SOUP.
TAPIOCA CREAM SOUP.
SOUPS WITHOUT MEAT.
ONION SOUP.
WINTER VEGETABLE SOUP.
VERMICELLI SOUP.
SWISS WHITE SOUP.
SPRING VEGETABLE SOUP.
CELERY SOUP.
IRISH POTATO SOUP.
PEA SOUP.
NOODLES FOR SOUP.
FORCE MEAT BALLS FOR SOUP.
EGG BALLS FOR SOUP.
EGG DUMPLINGS FOR SOUP.
SUET DUMPLINGS FOR SOUP.
SOYER'S RECIPE FOR FORCE MEATS.
CROUTONS FOR SOUP.
FISH STOCK.
FISH SOUP.
LOBSTER SOUP, OR BISQUE.
CLAM SOUP.
MODES OF FRYING
FISH.
TO FRY FISH.
PAN-FISH.
BAKED PICKEREL.
BOILED SALMON.
BROILED SALMON.
FRESH SALMON FRIED.
SALMON AND CAPER SAUCE.
BROILED SALT SALMON OR OTHER SALT FISH.
PICKLED SALMON.
SMOKED SALMON.
FRICASSEE SALMON.
SALMON PATTIES.
FISH AND OYSTER PIE.
STEAMED FISH.
TO BROIL A SHAD.
BAKED SHAD.
TO COOK A SHAD ROE.
BOILED BASS.
BOILED BLUEFISH.
BAKED BLUEFISH.
FRIED EELS.
SHEEPSHEAD WITH DRAWN BUTTER.
BAKED WHITE FISH.
HALIBUT BOILED.
STEAMED HALIBUT.
BAKED HALIBUT.
HALIBUT BROILED.
FRIED BROOK TROUT.
FRIED SMELTS.
BOILED WHITE FISH.
BAKED SALMON TROUT.
TO BAKE SMELTS.
BROILED SPANISH MACKEREL.
BOILED SALT MACKEREL.
BAKED SALT MACKEREL.
FRIED SALT MACKEREL.
BOILED FRESH MACKEREL.
POTTED FRESH FISH.
SCALLOPED CRABS.
FISH IN WHITE SAUCE.
FRESH STURGEON STEAK MARINADE.
POTTED FISH.
MAYONNAISE FISH.
CODFISH BALLS.
CODFISH A LA MODE.
BOILED FRESH COD.
SCALLOPED FISH.
FISH FRITTERS.
BOILED CODFISH AND OYSTER SAUCE.
BAKED CODFISH.
SALMON CROQUETTES.
SHELL-FISH
STEWED WATER TURTLES, OR TERRAPINS.
STEWED TERRAPIN, WITH CREAM.
STEWED TERRAPIN.
OILED LOBSTER.
SCALLOPED LOBSTER.
DEVILED LOBSTER.
LOBSTER CROQUETTES.
LOBSTER PATTIES.
BAKED CRABS.
DEVILED CRABS.
CRAB CROQUETTES.
TO MAKE A CRAB PIE.
OYSTERS.
FRIED OYSTERS.
OYSTERS FRIED IN BATTER.
PLAIN OYSTER STEW.
OYSTER SOUP.
DRY OYSTER STEW.
BOSTON FRY.
BROILED OYSTERS.
STEAMED OYSTERS.
STEAMED OYSTERS IN THE SHELL.
OYSTER FRITTERS.
OYSTER PATTIES.
FULTON MARKET ROAST.
SCALLOPED OYSTERS.
OYSTER POT-PIE.
BOSTON OYSTER PIE.
MOCK OYSTERS.
FRICASSEED OYSTERS.
STEWED CLAMS.
ROAST CLAMS IN THE SHELL.
CLAM FRITTERS.
CLAM CHOWDER.
SCALLOPED CLAMS.
SCALLOPS.
FROGS FRIED.
FROGS STEWED.
POULTRY AND GAME
ROAST TURKEY.
DRESSING OR STUFFING FOR FOWLS.
OYSTER DRESSING OR STUFFING.
BOILED TURKEY.
TURKEY SCALLOP.
TURKEY HASHED.
TURKEY WARMED OVER.
BONED TURKEY.
ROAST GOOSE.
ROAST CHICKEN.
BOILED CHICKEN.
STEAMED CHICKEN.
FRICASSEE CHICKEN.
STEWED WHOLE SPRING CHICKEN.
PICKLED CHICKEN.
RISSOLES OF CHICKEN.
CHICKEN PATTIES.
TO BROIL CHICKEN.
CHICKEN PIE.
FRIED CHICKEN.
TO FRY CROQUETTES.
PRESSED CHICKEN.
CHICKEN LUNCH FOR TRAVELING.
POTTED CHICKEN.
SCALLOPED CHICKEN.
BREADED CHICKEN.
BROILED CHICKEN ON TOAST.
CURRY CHICKEN.
CHICKEN STEWED WITH BISCUIT.
CHICKEN DRESSED AS TERRAPIN.
CHICKEN ROLY-POLY.
CHICKEN TURNOVERS.
CHICKEN PUDDING.
CHICKEN AND MACARONI.
BRAISED DUCK.
STEWED DUCK.
DUCK PIE.
WARMED UP DUCK.
ROAST WILD DUCK.
WILD DUCKS.
CANVAS-BACK DUCK.
ROAST PIGEONS.
STEWED PIGEONS.
PIGEON PIE.
BROILED PIGEONS OR SQUABS.
SQUAB POT-PIE.
WOODCOCK, ROASTED.
SNIPE.
REED BIRDS.
ROAST QUAIL.
TO ROAST PARTRIDGES, PHEASANTS, QUAIL OR GROUSE.
GAME PIE.
SNOWBIRDS.
SQUIRREL.
ROAST HARE OR RABBIT.
FRICASSEE RABBIT.
FRIED RABBIT.
RABBIT PIE.
BROILED RABBITS.
SALMI OF GAME.
ROAST HAUNCH OF VENISON.
BROILED VENISON STEAK.
BAKED SADDLE OF VENISON.
VENISON PIE OR PASTRY.
VENISON HASHED.
FRIED VENISON STEAK.
MEATS.
THAWING FROZEN MEAT, ETC.
TO KEEP MEAT FROM FLIES.
ROAST BEEF.
YORKSHIRE PUDDING.
BEEFSTEAK AND ONIONS.
BEEFSTEAK AND OYSTERS.
TO FRY BEEFSTEAKS.
TENDERLOIN OF BEEF.
STEWED STEAK WITH OYSTERS.
SMOTHERED BEEFSTEAK.
BEEFSTEAK ROLLS.
TO COLLAR A FLANK OF BEEF.
DRIED BEEF.
ROAST BEEF PIE WITH POTATO CRUST.
ROAST BEEF PIE.
BEEFSTEAK PIE.
FRIZZLED BEEF.
FLANK STEAK.
TO BOIL CORNED BEEF.
SPICED BEEF RELISH.
FRIED BEEF LIVER.
PRESSED BEEF.
FRENCH STEW.
TO POT BEEF.
STEWED BRISKET OF BEEF.
DRIED BEEF WITH CREAM.
MEAT AND POTATO CROQUETTES.
COLD MEAT AND POTATO, BAKED.
HAMBURGER STEAK.
TO ROAST BEEF HEART.
STEWED BEEF KIDNEY.
BEEFS HEART STEWED.
BOILED BEEF TONGUE.
SPICED BEEF TONGUE.
TO BOIL TRIPE.
TO FRY TRIPE.
FRICASSEED TRIPE.
TRIPE LYONNAISE.
TO CLARIFY BEEF DRIPPINGS.
ROAST LOIN OF VEAL.
ROAST FILLET OF VEAL.
BOILED FILLET OF VEAL.
VEAL PUDDING.
FRIED VEAL CUTLETS.
VEAL COLLOPS.
VEAL OLIVES.
VEAL CHEESE.
VEAL CROQUETTES.
VEAL POT-PIE.
VEAL PIE.
VEAL STEW.
VEAL LOAF.
VEAL FOR LUNCH.
VEAL PATTIES.
BRAISED VEAL.
BAKED CALF'S HEAD.
CALF'S HEAD CHEESE.
BRAIN CUTLETS.
CALFS HEAD BOILED.
CALF'S LIVER AND BACON.
CROQUETTES OF SWEETBREADS.
SWEETBREADS.
FRIED SWEETBREADS.
BAKED SWEETBREADS.
FRICASSEED SWEETBREADS.
MUTTON AND LAMB.
ROAST MUTTON.
BONED LEG OF MUTTON ROASTED.
BOILED LEG OF MUTTON.
BRAISED LEG OF MUTTON.
STEAMED LEG OF MUTTON.
HASHED MUTTON.
BROILED MUTTON CHOPS.
FRIED MUTTON CHOPS. NO. 1.
FRIED MUTTON CHOPS. NO. 2.
BAKED MUTTON CHOPS AND POTATOES.
MUTTONETTES.
IRISH STEW.
MUTTON PUDDING.
SCRAMBLED MUTTON.
SCALLOPED MUTTON AND TOMATOES.
LAMB SWEETBREADS AND TOMATO SAUCE.
ROAST QUARTER OF LAMB.
TO BROIL THE FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB.
LAMB STEW.
PRESSED LAMB.
CROQUETTES OF ODDS AND ENDS.
PORK.
ROAST PIG.
ROAST LOIN OF PORK.
ROAST LEG OF PORK.
BOILED LEG OF PORK.
FRESH PORK POT-PIE.
ROAST SPARERIB.
PORK TENDERLOINS.
PORK CUTLETS.
PORK CHOPS AND FRIED APPLES.
FRIED PORK CHOPS.
PORK PIE.
PORK POT-PIE.
BOSTON PORK AND BEANS.
FRIED SALT PORK.
GRILLED SALT PORK.
FRIED HAM AND EGGS.
COLD BACON AND EGGS.
SCRAPPEL.
PIGS' FEET PICKLED.
BOILED HAM.
BROILED HAM.
POTTED HAM.
COUNTRY PORK SAUSAGES.
TO FRY SAUSAGES.
HEAD CHEESE.
TO SMOKE HAMS AND FISH AT HOME.
TO CURE ENGLISH BACON.
TO TRY OUT LARD.
SAUCES AND DRESSINGS.
DRAWN BUTTER.
TARTARE SAUCE.
EGG SAUCE, OR WHITE SAUCE.
OYSTER SAUCE.
LOBSTER SAUCE.
SAUCE FOR SALMON AND OTHER FISH.
SAUCE FOR BOILED COD.
CELERY SAUCE.
CAPER SAUCE.
BREAD SAUCE.
TOMATO SAUCE.
ONION SAUCE.
CHILI SAUCE.
MINT SAUCE.
SHARP BROWN SAUCE.
BECHAMEL SAUCE.
MAITRE D'HOTEL SAUCE.
WINE SAUCE FOR GAME.
HOLLANDAISE SAUCE.
CURRANT JELLY SAUCE.
BROWN SAUCE.
MUSHROOM SAUCE.
APPLE SAUCE.
CIDER APPLE SAUCE.
OLD-FASHIONED APPLE SAUCE.
CRANBERRY SAUCE.
APPLE OMELET.
FLAVORED VINEGARS.
CUCUMBER VINEGAR.
CURRY POWDER.
CURRY SAUCE.
TO BROWN BUTTER.
TO BROWN FLOUR.
TO MAKE MUSTARD.
FRENCH MUSTARD.
KITCHEN PEPPER.
SPICES.
HERBS FOR WINTER.
MEATS AND THEIR ACCOMPANIMENTS.
VEGETABLES APPROPRIATE TO DIFFERENT DISHES.
WARM DISHES FOR BREAKFAST.
VEGETABLES FOR BREAKFAST.
SALADS.
MAYONNAISE DRESSING.
FRENCH SALAD DRESSING.
MIXED SUMMER SALAD.
CHICKEN SALAD.
FISH SALAD.
OYSTER SALAD.
DUTCH SALAD.
HAM SALAD.
CRAB SALAD.
COLD SLAW.
PLAIN COLD SLAW.
HOT SLAW.
TOMATO SALAD.
ENDIVE.
CELERY SALAD.
LETTUCE SALAD.
POTATO SALAD, HOT.
POTATO SALAD, COLD.
BEAN SALAD.
TO DRESS CUCUMBERS RAW.
CELERY UNDRESSED.
RADISHES.
PEPPERGRASS AND CRESS.
HORSE-RADISH.
LETTUCE.
CATSUPS.
GREEN TOMATO CATSUP.
WALNUT CATSUP.
OYSTER CATSUP.
MUSHROOM CATSUP.
GOOSEBERRY CATSUP.
CUCUMBER CATSUP.
CURRANT CATSUP.
APPLE CATSUP.
CELERY VINEGAR.
SPICED VINEGAR.
PICKLES.
CUCUMBER PICKLES.
SLICED CUCUMBER PICKLE.
PICKLED MUSHROOMS.
PICKLED WHITE CABBAGE.
PICKLED CAULIFLOWER.
PICKLED GREEN PEPPERS.
GREEN PEPPER MANGOES.
PICKLED ONIONS.
PICKLED MANGOES.
PICKLE OF RIPE CUCUMBERS.
PICKLED OYSTERS.
PICCALILLI.
PICKLED EGGS.
AN ORNAMENTAL PICKLE.
EAST INDIA PICKLE.
MIXED PICKLES.
BLUEBERRY PICKLES.
PICKLED BUTTERNUTS AND WALNUTS.
WATERMELON PICKLE.
SWEET PICKLE FOR FRUIT.
PEAR PICKLE.
SPICED CURRANTS.
SPICED PLUMS.
SPICED GRAPES.
PICKLED CHERRIES.
VEGETABLES.
TO BOIL NEW POTATOES.
MASHED POTATOES.
BROWNED POTATOES.
POTATO PUFFS.
NEW POTATOES AND CREAM.
SARATOGA CHIPS.
FRIED RAW POTATOES.
STEAMED POTATOES.
POTATO SNOW.
HASTY COOKED POTATOES.
FAVORITE WARMED POTATOES.
CRISP POTATOES.
LYONNAISE POTATOES.
POTATO FILLETS.
FRIED POTATOES WITH EGGS.
BAKED POTATOES.
SWEET POTATOES.
BAKED SWEET POTATOES.
ONIONS BOILED.
ONIONS STEWED.
ONIONS BAKED.
FRIED ONIONS.
SCALLOPED ONIONS.
CAULIFLOWER.
FRIED CAULIFLOWER.
CABBAGE BOILED.
CABBAGE WITH CREAM.
STEAMED CABBAGE.
LADIES' CABBAGE.
FRIED CABBAGE.
FRENCH WAY OF COOKING CABBAGE.
SOURCROUT.
TO BOIL RICE.
PARSNIPS, BOILED.
FRIED PARSNIPS.
STEWED PARSNIPS.
PARSNIP FRITTERS.
CREAMED PARSNIPS.
STEWED TOMATOES.
TO PEEL TOMATOES.
SCALLOPED TOMATOES.
STUFFED BAKED TOMATOES.
FRIED AND BROILED TOMATOES.
SCRAMBLED TOMATOES.
FRIED CUCUMBERS.
GREEN CORN, BOILED.
CORN PUDDING.
STEWED CORN.
FRIED CORN.
ROASTED GREEN CORN.
SUCCOTASH.
FRIED EGG-PLANT.
STUFFED EGG-PLANT.
STRING BEANS.
LIMA AND KIDNEY BEANS.
CELERY.
STEWED SALSIFY OR OYSTER-PLANT.
FRIED SALSIFY.
BEETS BOILED.
BAKED BEETS.
STEWED BEETS.
OKRA.
ASPARAGUS.
ASPARAGUS WITH EGGS.
GREEN PEAS.
STEWED GREEN PEAS.
SQUASHES, OR CYMBLINGS.
BOILED WINTER SQUASH.
BAKED WINTER SQUASH.
VEGETABLE HASH.
SPINACH.
GREENS.
STEWED CARROTS.
CARROTS MASHED.
TURNIPS.
STEWED PUMPKINS.
STEWED ENDIVE.
BAKED MUSHROOMS.
STEWED MUSHROOMS.
CANNED MUSHROOMS.
MUSHROOMS FOR WINTER USE.
TRUFFLES.
ITALIAN STYLE OF DRESSING TRUFFLES.
TRUFFLES AU NATUREL.
MACARONI.
MACARONI AND CHEESE.
TIMBALE OF MACARONI.
MACARONI AND TOMATO SAUCE.
BUTTER AND CHEESE
TO MAKE BUTTER.
TO MAKE BUTTER QUICKLY.
A BRINE TO PRESERVE BUTTER.
PUTTING UP BUTTER TO KEEP.
CURDS AND CREAM.
NEW JERSEY CREAM CHEESE.
COTTAGE CHEESE.
SLIP.
CHEESE FONDU.
SCALLOPED CHEESE.
PASTRY RAMAKINS.
CAYENNE CHEESE STRAWS.
CHEESE CREAM TOAST.
WELSH RAREBIT.
EGGS AND OMELETS.
TO PRESERVE EGGS.
BOILED EGGS.
SOFT BOILED EGGS.
SCALLOPED EGGS.
SHIRRED EGGS.
SCRAMBLED EGGS.
POACHED OR DROPPED EGGS.
FRIED EGGS.
EGGS AUX FINES HERBES.
EGGS IN CASES.
MINCED EGGS.
MIXED EGGS AND BACON.
MIXED EGGS GENERALLY--SAVORY OR SWEET.
COLD EGGS FOR A PICNIC.
OMELETS.
PLAIN OMELET.
MEAT OR FISH OMELETS.
VEGETABLE OMELET.
OMELET OF HERBS.
CHEESE OMELET.
ASPARAGUS OMELET.
RICE OMELET.
HAM OMELET.
CHICKEN OMELET.
MUSHROOM OMELET.
OYSTER OMELET.
FISH OMELET.
ONION OMELET.
JELLY OMELET.
BAKED OMELET.
RUM OMELET.
SANDWICHES.
HAM SANDWICHES.
HAM SANDWICHES, PLAIN.
CHICKEN SANDWICHES.
SARDINE SANDWICHES.
WATER CRESS SANDWICHES.
EGG SANDWICHES.
MUSHROOM SANDWICHES.
CHEESE SANDWICHES.
BREAD.
GENERAL DIRECTIONS.
WHEAT BREAD.
COMPRESSED YEAST BREAD.
HOME-MADE YEAST.
UNRIVALED YEAST.
DRIED YEAST OR YEAST CAKES.
SALT-RAISING BREAD.
BREAD FROM MILK YEAST.
GRAHAM BREAD.
BOSTON BROWN BREAD.
VIRGINIA BROWN BREAD.
RHODE ISLAND BROWN BREAD.
STEAMED BROWN BREAD.
RYE BREAD.
RYE AND CORN BREAD.
FRENCH BREAD.
TWIST BREAD.
NEW ENGLAND CORN CAKE.
GERMAN BREAD.
CORN BREAD.
VIRGINIA CORN BREAD.
BOSTON CORN BREAD.
INDIAN LOAF CAKE.
JOHNNIE CAKE.
SPIDER CORN-CAKE.
SOUTHERN CORN MEAL PONE OR CORN DODGERS.
RAISED POTATO-CAKE.
BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC.
GENERAL SUGGESTIONS.
TO RENEW STALE ROLLS.
WARM BREAD FOR BREAKFAST..
SODA BISCUIT.
BAKING POWDER BISCUIT.
SOUR MILK BISCUIT.
RAISED BISCUIT.
GRAHAM BISCUITS, WITH YEAST.
EGG BISCUIT.
PARKER HOUSE ROLLS.
FRENCH ROLLS.
BEATEN BISCUIT.
POTATO BISCUIT.
VINEGAR BISCUITS.
GRAFTON MILK BISCUITS.
SALLY LUNN.
LONDON HOT-CROSS BUNS.
RUSKS, WITH YEAST.
RUSKS.
SCOTCH SCONES.
CRACKNELS.
PLAIN MUFFINS.
MUFFINS WITHOUT EGGS.
TENNESSEE MUFFINS.
HOMINY MUFFINS.
PLAIN GRAHAM GEMS.
WAFFLES.
CONTINENTAL HOTEL WAFFLES.
NEWPORT WAFFLES.
CREAM WAFFLES.
GERMAN RICE WAFFLES.
BERRY TEA-CAKES.
RYE DROP-CAKES.
WHEAT DROP-CAKES.
POP-OVERS.
WHEAT GRIDDLE-CAKES.
SOUR MILK GRIDDLE-CAKES.
CORN MEAL GRIDDLE-CAKES.
GRAHAM GRIDDLE-CAKES.
BREAD GRIDDLE-CAKES.
RICE GRIDDLE-CAKES.
POTATO GRIDDLE-CAKES.
GREEN CORN GRIDDLE-CAKES.
HUCKLEBERRY GRIDDLE-CAKES.
FRENCH GRIDDLE-CAKES.
RAISED BUCKWHEAT CAKES.
BUCKWHEAT CAKES WITHOUT YEAST.
BUCKWHEAT CAKES.
SWEDISH GRIDDLE-CAKES.
CORN MEAL FRITTERS.
CREAM FRITTERS.
CURRANT FRITTERS.
WHEAT FRITTERS.
APPLE FRITTERS.
PINEAPPLE FRITTERS.
PEACH FRITTERS.
GOLDEN-BALL FRITTERS.
CANNELONS, OR FRIED PUFFS.
GERMAN FRITTERS.
HOMINY FRITTERS.
PARSNIP FRITTERS.
GREEN CORN FRITTERS.
CREAM SHORT-CAKE.
STRAWBERRY SHORT-CAKE.
ORANGE SHORT-CAKE.
LEMON SHORT-CAKE.
HUCKLEBERRY SHORT-CAKE.
FRIED DINNER-ROLLS.
NEWPORT BREAKFAST-CAKES.
PUFF BALLS.
BREAKFAST PUFFS.
ENGLISH CRUMPETS.
PLAIN CRUMPETS.
PREPARED BREAD CRUMBS.
CRACKERS.
FRENCH CRACKERS.
CORN MEAL MUSH OR HASTY PUDDING.
FRIED MUSH.
GRAHAM MUSH.
OATMEAL.
RICE CROQUETTES.
HOMINY.
HOMINY CROQUETTES.
BOILED RICE.
SAMP, OR HULLED CORN.
CRACKED WHEAT.
OAT FLAKES.
STEAMED OATMEAL.
HOMINY.
TOAST.
MILK TOAST.
CREAM TOAST.
AMERICAN TOAST.
NUNS' TOAST.
OYSTER TOAST.
MUSHROOMS ON TOAST.
TOMATO TOAST.
EGGS ON TOAST.
BAKED EGGS ON TOAST.
HAM TOAST.
REED BIRDS ON TOAST.
MINCED FOWLS ON TOAST.
HASHED BEEF ON TOAST.
VEAL HASH ON TOAST.
HALIBUT ON TOAST.
CHICKEN HASH WITH RICE TOAST.
APPLE TOAST.
CAKES.
SUGGESTIONS IN REGARD TO CAKE-MAKING.
FROSTING OR ICING.
ALMOND FROSTING.
CHOCOLATE FROSTING.
PLAIN CHOCOLATE ICING.
TUTTI FRUTTI ICING.
SUGAR ICING.
BOILED FROSTING.
FROSTING WITHOUT EGGS.
GELATINE FROSTING.
GOLDEN FROSTING.
FILLINGS FOR LAYER CAKES.
BREAD OR RAISED CAKE.
WHITE FRUIT CAKE.
MOLASSES FRUIT CAKE.
SPONGE CAKE.
WHITE SPONGE CAKE.
ALMOND SPONGE CAKE.
OLD-FASHIONED SPONGE CAKE.
LEMON SPONGE CAKE.
PLAIN SPONGE CAKE.
BRIDE'S CAKE.
ENGLISH POUND CAKE.
PLAIN POUND CAKE.
COCOANUT POUND CAKE.
CITRON POUND CAKE.
CITRON CAKE.
LEMON CAKE.
DELICATE CAKE.
SILVER, OR DELICATE CAKE.
GOLD CAKE.
GOLD OR LEMON CAKE.
MARBLE CAKE.
SUPERIOR LOAF CAKE.
FRENCH CHOCOLATE CAKE.
COCOANUT CAKE.
COCOANUT AND ALMOND CAKE.
COFFEE CAKE.
FEATHER CAKE.
ELECTION CAKE.
CREAM CAKE.
GOLDEN CREAM CAKE.
DRIED APPLE FRUIT CAKE.
CAKE WITHOUT EGGS.
QUEEN'S CAKE.
ANGEL CAKE.
WASHINGTON LOAF CAKE.
RIBBON CAKE.
GOLDEN SPICE CAKE.
ALMOND CAKE.
ROCHESTER JELLY CAKE.
FRUIT LAYER CAKE.
WHIPPED CREAM CAKE.
ROLLED JELLY CAKE.
TO CUT LAYER CAKE.
LAYER JELLY CAKE.
CUSTARD OR CREAM CAKE.
HICKORY NUT OR WALNUT CAKE.
CHEAP CREAM CAKE.
SOFT GINGER CAKE.
HARD GINGERBREAD.
PLAIN GINGERBREAD.
WHITE GINGER BISCUIT.
GOLD AND SILVER CAKE.
BOSTON CREAM CAKES.
CHOCOLATE ECLAIRS.
HUCKLEBERRY CAKE.
SWEET STRAWBERRY CAKE.
MOLASSES CUP CAKES.
BAKERS' GINGER SNAPS.
GINGER COOKIES.
GINGER SNAPS.
DOMINOES.
FANCY CAKES.
WAFERS.
PEACH CAKES.
CUP CAKES.
VARIEGATED CAKES.
CORNSTARCH CAKES.
SPONGE DROPS.
SAVORY BISCUITS OR LADY FINGERS.
PASTRY SANDWICHES.
NEAPOLITAINES.
BRUNSWICK JELLY CAKES.
LITTLE PLUM CAKES.
JUMBLES.
WINE JUMBLES.
COCOANUT JUMBLES.
PHILADELPHIA JUMBLES.
ALMOND JUMBLES.
FRUIT JUMBLES.
COOKIES.
FAVORITE COOKIES.
FRUIT COOKIES.
LEMON COOKIES.
COCOANUT COOKIES.
DOUGHNUTS OR FRIED CAKES.
CRULLERS OR FRIED CAKES.
RAISED DOUGHNUTS.
BAKERS' RAISED DOUGHNUTS.
CRULLERS OR WONDERS.
GERMAN DOUGHNUTS.
TRIFLES.
PUFF-BALL DOUGHNUTS.
PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS.
GENERAL REMARKS.
HOW TO MAKE A PIE.
FOR ICING PASTRY.
FINE PUFF PASTE.
PUFF PASTE FOR PIES.
SOYER'S RECIPE FOR PUFF PASTE.
RULE FOR UNDER CRUST.
PLAIN PIE CRUST.
PUFF PASTE OF SUET.
POTATO CRUST.
TO MAKE PIE CRUST FLAKY.
PATTIES, OR SHELLS FOR TARTS.
TARTS.
GREEN APPLE PIE.
IRISH APPLE PIE.
MOCK APPLE PIE.
APPLE AND PEACH MERINGUE PIE.
ORANGE PIE.
BAKERS' CUSTARD PIE.
CREAM PIE.
WHIPPED CREAM PIE.
CUSTARD PIE.
BOSTON CREAM PIE.
MOCK CREAM PIE.
FRUIT CUSTARD PIE.
CHERRY PIE.
CURRANT PIE.
RIPE CURRANT PIE.
GREEN TOMATO PIE.
APRICOT MERINGUE PIE.
HUCKLEBERRY PIE.
BLACKBERRY PIE.
MOLASSES PIE.
LEMON RAISIN PIE.
RHUBARB PIE.
PINEAPPLE PIE.
GRAPE PIE.
DAMSON OR PLUM PIE.
PEACH PIE.
DRIED FRUIT PIES.
RIPE BERRY PIES.
JELLY AND PRESERVED FRUIT PIES.
CRANBERRY PIE.
CRANBERRY TART PIE.
GOOSEBERRY PIE.
STEWED PUMPKIN OR SQUASH FOR PIES.
BAKED PUMPKIN OR SQUASH FOR PIES.
PUMPKIN PIE WITHOUT EGGS.
SQUASH PIE.
SWEET POTATO PIE.
COOKED MEAT FOR MINCE PIES.
MOCK MINCE MEAT WITHOUT MEAT.
PLUM CUSTARD TARTLETS.
ORANGE TARTLETS.
MERINGUE CUSTARD TARTLETS.
BERRY TARTS.
CREAM STRAWBERRY TARTS.
GREEN GOOSEBERRY TART.
COCOANUT TARTS.
CHOCOLATE TARTS.
MAIDS OF HONOR.
GERMAN FRUIT PIE.
APPLE TARTS.
CREAM TARTS.
OPEN JAM TARTS.
CHESS CAKES.
CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS.
SOFT CARAMEL CUSTARD.
BAKED CUSTARD.
CUP CUSTARD.
BOILED CUSTARD.
BOILED CUSTARD, OR MOCK CREAM.
FRENCH CUSTARD.
GERMAN CUSTARD.
APPLE CUSTARD.
SNOWBALL CUSTARD.
BAKED COCOANUT CUSTARD.
SPANISH CREAM.
BAVARIAN CREAM.
STRAWBERRY BAVARIAN CREAM.
GOLDEN CREAM.
ORANGE CREAM.
SOLID CREAM.
BANANA CREAM.
TAPIOCA CREAM CUSTARD.
ITALIAN CREAM.
SNOW CREAM.
MOCK ICE.
PEACH MERINGUE.
APPLE FLOAT.
SYLLABUB.
CREAM FOR FRUIT.
STRAWBERRY SPONGE.
LEMON SPONGE.
APPLE SNOW.
QUINCE SNOW.
ORANGE TRIFLE.
LEMON TRIFLE.
FRUIT TRIFLE.
GRAPE TRIFLE.
APPLE TRIFLE.
PEACH TRIFLE.
GOOSEBERRY TRIFLE.
LEMON HONEY.
FLOATING ISLANDS.
FLOATING ISLAND.
TAPIOCA BLANC MANGE.
CHOCOLATE BLANC MANGE.
CORNSTARCH BLANC MANGE.
FRUIT BLANC MANGE.
ORANGE CHARLOTTE.
STRAWBERRY CHARLOTTE.
CHARLOTTE RUSSE.
ANOTHER CHARLOTTE RUSSE.
NAPLE BISCUITS, OR CHARLOTTE RUSSE.
ECONOMICAL CHARLOTTE RUSSE.
TIPSY CHARLOTTE.
ORANGE CHARLOTTE.
BURNT ALMOND CHARLOTTE.
CHARLOTTE RUSSE, WITH PINEAPPLE.
COUNTRY PLUM CHARLOTTE.
VELVET CREAM, WITH STRAWBERRIES.
CORNSTARCH MERINGUE.
WASHINGTON PIE.
CREAM PIE.
DESSERT PUFFS.
PEACH CAKE FOR DESSERT.
FRUIT SHORT-CAKES.
SALTED OR ROASTED ALMONDS.
ROAST CHESTNUTS.
AFTER-DINNER CROUTONS.
ORANGE FLOAT.
LEMON TOAST.
SALAD OF MIXED FRUITS.
ORANGE COCOANUT SALAD.
CRYSTALLIZED FRUIT.
PEACHES AND CREAM.
SNOW PYRAMID.
JELLY FRITTERS.
BAKED PEARS.
STEWED PEARS.
BAKED QUINCES.
GOOSEBERRY FOOL.
MERINGUES OR KISSES.
JELLY KISSES.
COCOANUT MACAROONS.
ALMOND MACAROONS.
CHOCOLATE MACAROONS.
WINE JELLY.
CIDER JELLY.
ORANGE JELLY.
VARIEGATED JELLY.
STRAWBERRY JELLY.
RECIPE FOR CHEESE CUSTARD.
ICE CREAM AND ICES
ICE-CREAM.
PURE ICE-CREAM.
FRUIT ICE-CREAM.
COCOANUT ICE-CREAM.
CUSTARD ICE-CREAM.
STRAWBERRY ICE-CREAM.
FRUIT CREAM.
TUTTI FRUTTI ICE-CREAM.
ICE-CREAM WITHOUT A FREEZER.
FROZEN PEACHES.
FROZEN FRUITS.
LEMON ICE.
PINEAPPLE SHERBET.
RASPBERRY SHERBET.
ORANGE-WATER ICE.
ALMOND ICE.
CURRANT ICE.
DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS
TO CLEAN CURRANTS.
TO CHOP SUET.
TO STONE RAISINS.
APPLE DUMPLINGS.
BOILED APPLE DUMPLINGS.
BOILED RICE DUMPLINGS, CUSTARD SAUCE.
PRESERVE DUMPLINGS.
OXFORD DUMPLINGS.
LEMON DUMPLINGS.
BOILED APPLE PUFFETS.
COMMON BATTER.
ALMOND PUDDING.
APPLE PUDDING, BAKED.
BOILED APPLE PUDDING.
BIRDS' NEST PUDDING.
COLD BERRY PUDDING.
APPLE TAPIOCA PUDDING.
APPLE AND BROWN-BREAD PUDDING.
APPLE-PUFF PUDDING.
PLAIN BREAD PUDDING, BAKED.
SUPERIOR BREAD PUDDINGS.
BOILED BREAD PUDDING.
BATTER PUDDING, BAKED.
BOILED BATTER PUDDING.
CUSTARD PUDDINGS.
APPLE CUSTARD PUDDINGS.
CREAM PUDDING.
CREAM MERINGUE PUDDING.
CORNSTARCH PUDDING.
COLD FRUIT PUDDING.
CUBAN PUDDING.
CRACKER PUDDING.
BAKED CORN MEAL PUDDING, WITHOUT EGGS.
BAKED CORN MEAL PUDDING, WITH EGGS.
BOILED CORN MEAL PUDDING.
BOILED CORN MEAL PUDDING, WITHOUT EGGS.
CORN MEAL PUFFS.
DELICATE INDIAN PUDDING.
COTTAGE PUDDING.
CHERRY PUDDING, BOILED OR STEAMED.
BAKED PLUM PUDDING.
PLUM PUDDING, WITHOUT EGGS.
CABINET PUDDING.
BAKED CRANBERRY PUDDING.
LEMON PUDDING.
BOILED LEMON PUDDING.
LEMON PUDDING, COLD.
ROYAL SAGO PUDDING.
SAGO APPLE PUDDING.
PLAIN SAGO PUDDING.
TAPIOCA PUDDING.
STRAWBERRY TAPIOCA.
RASPBERRY PUDDING.
PEAR, PEACH AND APPLE PUDDING.
FIG PUDDINGS.
FRUIT PUDDING, CORN MEAL.
APPLE CORN MEAL PUDDING.
RHUBARB OR PIE-PLANT PUDDING.
FRUIT PUDDINGS.
SNOW PUDDING.
DELMONICO PUDDING.
SAUCER PUDDINGS.
NANTUCKET PUDDING.
TOAST PUDDING.
PLAIN RICE PUDDING.
RICE MERINGUE.
RICE LEMON PUDDING.
RICE PUDDING WITHOUT EGGS.
FRUIT RICE PUDDING.
RICE SNOW-BALLS.
PRUNE PUDDING.
BLACKBERRY OR WHORTLEBERRY PUDDING.
BAKED HUCKLEBERRY PUDDING.
FRUIT PUDDING.
BOILED CURRANT PUDDING.
TRANSPARENT PUDDING.
SWEET-POTATO PUDDING.
PINEAPPLE PUDDING.
ORANGE ROLEY POLEY.
FRUIT PUFF PUDDING.
GRAHAM PUDDING.
BANANA PUDDING.
DRIED PEACH PUDDING.
SUET PUDDING, PLAIN.
SUET PLUM PUDDING.
PEACH COBBLER.
HOMINY PUDDING.
BAKED BERRY ROLLS.
GREEN CORN PUDDING.
GENEVA WAFERS.
SUNDERLAND PUDDING.
JELLY PUDDINGS.
QUICK PUDDING.
READY PUDDING.
A ROYAL DESSERT.
HUCKLEBERRIES WITH CRACKERS AND CREAM.
SAUCES FOR PUDDINGS.
BRANDY SAUCE, COLD.
RICH WINE SAUCE.
LIQUID BRANDY SAUCE.
GRANDMOTHERS SAUCE.
SUGAR SAUCE.
LEMON SAUCE.
LEMON CREAM SAUCE, HOT.
ORANGE CREAM SAUCE, HOT.
COLD LEMON SAUCE.
COLD ORANGE SAUCE.
COLD CREAM SAUCE.
CREAM SAUCE, WARM.
CARAMEL SAUCE.
A GOOD PLAIN SAUCE.
OLD STYLE SAUCE.
PLAIN COLD, HARD SAUCE.
CUSTARD SAUCE.
MILK SAUCE.
MILK OR CREAM SAUCE.
FRUIT SAUCE.
JELLY SAUCE.
COMMON SWEET SAUCE.
SYRUP FOR FRUIT SAUCE.
PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC.
PRESERVED CHERRIES.
PRESERVED CRANBERRIES.
PRESERVED STRAWBERRIES.
PRESERVED EGG PLUMS.
PRESERVED PEACHES.
PRESERVED GREEN TOMATOES.
PRESERVED QUINCES.
PRESERVED PEARS.
PINEAPPLE PRESERVES.
TO PRESERVE WATERMELON RIND AND CITRON.
TO PRESERVE AND DRY GREENGAGES.
PRESERVED PUMPKINS.
TO PRESERVE FRUIT WITHOUT 'SUGAR.
NEW METHOD OF PRESERVING FRUIT.
FRUIT JELLIES.
CURRANT JELLY.
QUINCE JELLY.
RASPBERRY JELLY.
APPLE JELLY.
GRAPE JELLY.
FLORIDA ORANGE JELLY.
CRAB-APPLE JELLY.
PEACH JELLY.
ORANGE SYRUP.
ORANGE MARMALADE.
LEMON MARMALADE
STRAWBERRY JAM.
GOOSEBERRY JAM.
BRANDIED PEACHES OR PEARS.
RASPBERRY JAM.
A NEW WAY OF KEEPING FRUIT.
MACEDOINES.
CANNED FRUITS
CANNED PEACHES.
CANNED GRAPES.
CANNED STRAWBERRIES.
TO CAN QUINCES.
CANNED PINEAPPLE.
CANNED FRUIT JUICES.
CANNED TOMATOES.
TO CAN CORN.
TO CAN PEAS.
CANNED PLUMS.
CANNED MINCE MEAT.
CANNED BOILED CIDER.
CANNED PUMPKIN.
PEACH BUTTER.
PEACHES DRIED WITH SUGAR.
COLORING FOR FRUIT, ETC.
RED OR PINK COLORING.
DEEP RED COLORING.
YELLOW COLORING.
GREEN COLORING.
SUGAR GRAINS.
SUGAR GRAINS, COLORED.
CARAMEL OR BURNT SUGAR.
TO CLARIFY JELLY.
CONFECTIONERY
FRENCH CREAM CANDY.
FRUIT CREAMS.
WALNUT CREAMS.
CHOCOLATE CREAMS.
COCOANUT CREAMS.
VARIEGATED CREAMS.
RASPBERRY CREAMS.
NUT CREAMS.
MAPLE SUGAR CREAMS.
STICK CANDY.
CHOCOLATE CARAMELS.
GRILLED ALMONDS.
PEPPERMINT DROPS.
CURRANT DROPS.
LEMON DROPS.
NUT MOLASSES CANDY.
SUGAR NUT CANDY.
COCOANUT CANDY.
BUTTER-SCOTCH.
EVERTON TAFFY, OR BUTTER-SCOTCH.
MAPLE WALNUTS.
POP-CORN BALLS.
HOARHOUND CANDY.
JUJUBE PASTE.
CANDIED ORANGES.
FIG CANDY.
CANDY ROLEY POLEY.
MOLASSES CANDY.
STRAWBERRY CONSERVE.
PEACH CONSERVE.
PEACH LEATHER.
COCOANUT CARAMELS.
DRIED PRESERVES.
CANDIES WITHOUT COOKING.
FRENCH VANILLA CREAM.
CHOCOLATE CREAM DROPS.
FRUIT AND NUT CREAMS.
ORANGE DROPS.
COCOANUT CREAMS.
COFFEE, TEA, BEVERAGES.
THE HEALING PROPERTIES OF TEA AND COFFEE.
COFFEE.
VIENNA COFFEE.
FILTERED OR DRIP COFFEE.
ICED COFFEE.
SUBSTITUTE FOR CREAM IN COFFEE.
TO MAKE TEA.
ICED TEA.
CHOCOLATE.
COCOA.
BUTTERMILK AS A DRINK.
BLACKBERRY WINE NO. 2
GRAPE WINE.
FLORIDA ORANGE WINE.
METHELIN, OR HONEY WINE.
BLACK CURRANT WINE.
RAISIN WINE.
CHERRY BOUNCE.
BLACKBERRY CORDIAL.
HOP BEER.
GINGER BEER.
SPRUCE BEER.
DELICIOUS JUNKET.
RASPBERRY SHRUB.
SASSAFRAS MEAD.
CREAM SODA WITHOUT THE FOUNTAIN.
WINE WHEY.
LEMON SYRUP.
FOR A SUMMER DRAUGHT.
NOYEAU CORDIAL.
EGG NOG.
EGG FLIP, OR MULLED ALE.
MILK PUNCH.
FINE MILK PUNCH.
TO MAKE HOT PUNCH.
LEMONADE.
STRAWBERRY WATER.
STRAWBERRY AND RASPBERRY SYRUP.
KOUMISS.
PINEAPPLE VINEGAR.
RASPBERRY VINEGAR. NO. 2.
HOME-MADE TABLE VINEGAR.
VERY STRONG TABLE VINEGAR.
PINEAPPLE-ADE.
SEIDLITZ POWDERS.
INEXPENSIVE DRINK.
THE VARIETIES OF SEASONABLE FOOD TO BE OBTAINED IN OUR MARKETS DURING
JANUARY.
FEBRUARY.
MARCH.
APRIL.
MAY.
JUNE.
JULY.
AUGUST.
SEPTEMBER.
OCTOBER.
NOVEMBER.
DECEMBER.
MENUS
BREAKFAST, LUNCH AND DINNER FOR THE HOLIDAYS
JANUARY.
NEW YEAR'S DAY.
BREAKFAST.
SUPPER.
DINNER.
SUNDAY.
BREAKFAST.
SUPPER.
DINNER.
MONDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
TUESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
WEDNESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
THURSDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
FRIDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
SATURDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
FEBRUARY.
WASHINGTON'S BIRTHDAY.
BREAKFAST.
DINNER
SUPPER
SUNDAY
BREAKFAST
DINNER
SUPPER
MONDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
TUESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
WEDNESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
THURSDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
FRIDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
SATURDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
MARCH.
SUNDAY.
BREAKFAST.
SUPPER.
DINNER.
MONDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
TUESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
WEDNESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
THURSDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
FRIDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
SATURDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
APRIL.
SUNDAY.
BREAKFAST.
SUPPER.
DINNER.
MONDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
TUESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
WEDNESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
THURSDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
FRIDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
SATURDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
MAY.
SUNDAY.
BREAKFAST.
SUPPER.
DINNER.
MONDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
TUESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
WEDNESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
THURSDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
FRIDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
SATURDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
JUNE.
SUNDAY.
BREAKFAST.
SUPPER.
DINNER.
MONDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
TUESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
WEDNESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
THURSDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
FRIDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
SATURDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
JULY.
FOURTH OF JULY.
BREAKFAST.
SUPPER.
DINNER.
SUNDAY.
BREAKFAST.
SUPPER.
DINNER.
MONDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
TUESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
WEDNESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
THURSDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
FRIDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
SATURDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
AUGUST.
SUNDAY.
BREAKFAST.
SUPPER.
DINNER.
MONDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
TUESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
WEDNESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
THURSDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
FRIDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
SATURDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
SEPTEMBER.
SUNDAY.
BREAKFAST.
SUPPER.
DINNER.
MONDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
TUESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
WEDNESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
THURSDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
FRIDAY
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
SATURDAY
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
OCTOBER.
SUNDAY.
BREAKFAST.
SUPPER.
DINNER.
MONDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
TUESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
WEDNESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
THURSDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
FRIDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
SATURDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
NOVEMBER.
THANKSGIVING DAY.
BREAKFAST.
SUPPER.
DINNER.
SUNDAY.
BREAKFAST.
SUPPER.
DINNER.
MONDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
TUESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
WEDNESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
THURSDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
FRIDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
SATURDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
DECEMBER.
CHRISTMAS DAY.
BREAKFAST.
SUPPER.
DINNER.
SUNDAY.
BREAKFAST.
SUPPER.
DINNER.
MONDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
TUESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
WEDNESDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
THURSDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
FRIDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
SATURDAY.
BREAKFAST.
LUNCHEON.
DINNER.
SPECIAL MENUS.
STATE DINNER AT WHITE HOUSE.
POTAGES.
HORS D'OEUVRES.
POISSONS.
ENTREES.
ENTREMETS.
GENERAL GRANT'S BIRTHDAY DINNER.
POTAGES.
VARIES HORS D'OEUVRE VARIES.
POISSON.
ENTREES.
ENTREMETS SUCRES.
PIECES MONTEES.
MENU FOR 4 COVERS.
MENU FOR 6 COVERS.
MENU FOR 8 COVERS.
MENU FOR 10 COVERS.
MENU FOR 12 COVERS.
MENU FOR 24 COVERS.
POTAGES.
HORS D'OEUVRE.
POISSON.
ENTREES.
ENTREMETS DE DOUCEUR.
BUFFET FOR 1,000 PEOPLE.
COLD SERVICE.
MANAGEMENT AND DIRECTION
OF
DINNERS AND RECEPTIONS
ON
STATE OCCASIONS AT THE WHITE HOUSE.
FOR THE SICK.
BEEFSTEAK AND MUTTON CHOPS.
BEEF TEA.
VEAL OR MUTTON BROTH.
CHICKEN BROTH.
OATMEAL GRUEL.
CORN MEAL GRUEL.
EGG GRUEL.
MILK PORRIDGE.
ARROWROOT MILK PORRIDGE.
ARROWROOT BLANC MANGE.
TAPIOCA JELLY.
SLIPPERY-ELM BARK TEA.
FLAX-SEED TEA.
FLAX-SEED LEMONADE.
TAMARIND WATER.
SAGO JELLY.
ARROWROOT WINE JELLY.
HOMINY.
CHICKEN JELLY.
BOILED RICE.
CUP PUDDING.
TAPIOCA CUP PUDDING.
BAKED APPLES.
SOFT TOAST.
IRISH MOSS BLANC MANGE.
EGG TOAST.
OYSTER TOAST.
MULLED JELLY.
CUP CUSTARD.
CLAM BROTH.
MILK OR CREAM CODFISH.
CRACKER PANADA.
BREAD PANADA.
SLIPPERY-ELM TEA.
TOAST WATER, OR CRUST COFFEE.
PLAIN MILK TOAST.
LINSEED TEA.
POWDERS FOR CHILDREN.
FOR CHILDREN TEETHING.
BLACKBERRY CORDIAL.
ACID DRINKS.
DRAUGHTS FOR THE FEET.
POULTICES.
A REMEDY FOR BOILS.
CURE FOR RINGWORMS.
HEALTH-SUGGESTIONS.
HOW COLDS ARE CAUGHT.
WATER.
REGULATION IN DIET.
HOW TO USE HOT WATER.
GROWING PAINS CURED.
HOW TO KEEP WELL.
DIPHTHERIA.
COLDS AND HOARSENESS.
MOLASSES POSSET.
COUGH SYRUP.
LEANNESS.
FOR TOOTHACHE.
TO CURE A STING OF A BEE OR WASP.
TO CURE EARACHE.
CROUP.
BURNS AND SCALDS.
TO STOP THE FLOW OF BLOOD.
GRAVEL.
SORE THROAT.
WHOOPING COUGH.
DIARRHOEA.
FOR CONSTIPATION.
RELIEF FROM ASTHMA.
RECIPES FOR FELONS.
REMEDY FOR LOCKJAW.
BLEEDING AT THE NOSE.
TO TAKE CINDERS FROM THE EYE.
EYE-WASHES.
SUNSTROKE.
TO REMOVE WARTS.
SWAIM'S VERMIFUGE.
FOR SEVERE SPRAINS.
CAMPHORATED OIL.
LINIMENT FOR CHILBLAINS.
"THE SUN'S" CHOLERA MIXTURE.
COMP. CATHARTIC ELIXIR.
GRANDMOTHER'S COUGH SYRUP.
GRANDMOTHER'S UNIVERSAL LINIMENT.
GRANDMOTHER'S FAMILY SPRING BITTERS.
GRANDMOTHER'S EYE-WASH.
HUNTER'S PILLS.
HINTS IN REGARD TO HEALTH.
MEDICINAL FOOD.
HOUSEKEEPERS' TIME-TABLE.
MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES.
USES OF AMMONIA.
TO DESTROY INSECTS AND VERMIN.
MOTHS IN CARPETS.
TO TAKE OUT MACHINE GREASE.
TO WASH FLANNELS.
TO STARCH, FOLD AND IRON SHIRTS.
CLEANING OIL-CLOTHS.
TO CLEAN SILKS OR RIBBONS.
TO CLEAN BLACK DRESS SILKS.
TO WASH FEATHERS.
INCOMBUSTIBLE DRESSES.
HOW TO FRESHEN UP FURS.
NOVEL DRESS MENDING.
TO RENEW OLD CRAPE.
TO RAISE THE PILE ON VELVET.
TO CLEAN KID GLOVES.
STARCH POLISH.
FOR CLEANING JEWELRY.
TO CLEAN SILVER PLATE.
TO REMOVE STAINS FROM MARBLE.
TO WHITEN WALLS.
PAPER-HANGERS' PASTE.
TO WASH COLORED GARMENTS.
THE MARKING SYSTEM.
TO REMOVE STAINS AND SPOTS.
OIL STAINS IN SILKS AND OTHER FABRICS.
CEMENT FOR CHINA AND GLASS.
CLEANING SINKS.
MANAGEMENT OF STOVES.
TO REMOVE INK FROM CARPETS.
TO TAKE RUST OUT OF STEEL.
TO MAKE A PASTE OR MUCILAGE TO FASTEN LABLES.
POSTAGE STAMP MUCILAGE.
FAMILY GLUE.
GLUE.
FURNITURE CREAM.
CEMENT CRACKS IN FLOOR.
A POLISH FOR LADIES' KID SHOES.
PASTE FOR SCRAP BOOKS, ETC.
TO REMOVE INDELIBLE INK.
A CEMENT FOR ACIDS.
TO KEEP CIDER.
TO BLEACH COTTON CLOTH.
A POLISH FOR LEATHER.
TO SOFTEN WATER.
WASHING FLUID.
SOAP FOR WASHING WITHOUT RUBBING.
TO MAKE SOFT SOAP WITHOUT COOKING.
OLD-STYLE FAMILY SOFT SOAP.
FACTS WORTH KNOWING.
TOILET RECIPES, ITEMS.
JOCKEY CLUB BOUQUET.
ROSE-WATER.
BAY RUM.
LAVENDER WATER.
CREAM OF LILIES.
CREAM OF ROSES.
COLD CREAM.
LIP-SALVE.
FOR DANDRUFF.
HAIR INVIGORATOR.
MACASSAR OIL FOR THE HAIR.
PHALON'S INSTANTANEOUS HAIR DYE.
DYE FOR WHITE OR LIGHT EYEBROWS.
HAIR WASH.
OXMARROW-POMADE FOR THE HAIR.
TO INCREASE THE HAIR IN THE BROWS.
BANDOLINE.
COMPLEXION WASH.
BURNET'S CELEBRATED POWDER FOR THE FACE.
TOILET OR FACE POWDER.
TO REMOVE FRECKLES.
TO REMOVE MOTH PATCHES.
CURE FOR PIMPLES.
PEARL SMELLING SALTS.
PEARL TOOTH POWDER.
REMOVING TARTAR FROM THE TEETH.
BAD BREATH.
SHAVING COMPOUND.
BARBER'S SHAMPOO MIXTURE.
RAZOR-STROP PASTE.
CAMPHOR ICE.
ODORIFEROUS OR SWEET-SCENTING BAGS.
HOW TO KEEP BRUSHES CLEAN.
TOILET ITEMS.
TOILET SOAP.
ANTIDOTES FOR POISONS.
MISCELLANEOUS.
FRENCH WORDS IN COOKING.
ARTICLES REQUIRED FOR THE KITCHEN.
DYEING OR COLORING.
GENERAL REMARKS.
SILKS.
WOOLEN GOODS.
COTTON GOODS.
SMALL POINTS ON TABLE ETIQUETTE.
DINNER GIVING.
THE LAYING OF THE TABLE AND THE TREATMENT OF GUESTS.
MEASURES AND WEIGHTS.
IN ORDINARY USE AMONG HOUSEKEEPERS.
INDEX.
ARTICLES REQUIRED FOR THE KITCHEN, 588
BEVERAGES, 458
BREAD, 238
BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC, 249
TOAST, 276
BUTTER AND CHEESE, 219
CAKE, ETC., 282
FROSTING OR ICING, 284
FILLINGS FOR LAYER CAKES, 287
CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, 438
CARVING, 7
COLORING FOR FRUIT, CONFECTIONERY, ETC., 444
CONFECTIONERY, 446
CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS, 344
DINNER GIVING, 599
DINNERS AND RECEPTIONS AT WHITE HOUSE, 507
DRESSINGS AND SAUCES, 156
DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS, 381
DYEING AND COLORING, 591
EGGS AND OMELETS, 225
FACTS WORTH KNOWING, 566
FISH, 49
FRENCH WORDS IN COOKING, 587
GAME AND POULTRY, 81
HEALTH SUGGESTIONS, 521
HOUSEKEEPERS' TIME TABLE, 542
ICE-CREAMS AND ICES, 376
JELLIES AND PRESERVES, 423
MEATS, 107
MEASURES AND WEIGHTS, 603
MENUS FOR BREAKFAST, LUNCHEON AND DINNER, 478
MENUS, SPECIAL, 503
MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES, 543
MODES OF FRYING, 48
OMELETS AND EGGS, 225
PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS, 320
POULTRY AND GAME, 81
PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC, 423
PUDDINGS AND DUMPLINGS, 381
SANDWICHES, 236
SAUCES AND DRESSINGS FOR MEATS, 156
SEASONABLE FOODS, VARIETIES OF, 473
SICK, COOKING FOR THE, 510
SMALL POINTS ON TABLE ETIQUETTE, 595
SOUPS, 27
SOUPS WITHOUT MEATS, 41
TABLE ETIQUETTE, SMALL POINTS ON, 595
TOILET RECIPES, ITEMS, ETC., 577
VEGETABLES, 191
MACARONI, 216
END OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE WHITEHOUSE COOKBOOK (1887)
START: FULL LICENSE
THE FULL PROJECT GUTENBERG LICENSE
1.F.

Converted from "14066-8.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK EVERYDAY FOODS IN WAR TIME
EVERYDAY FOODS IN WAR TIME
MARY SWARTZ ROSE
PREFACE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. THE MILK PITCHER IN THE HOME
II. CEREALS WE OUGHT TO EAT
III. THE MEAT WE OUGHT TO SAVE
IV. THE POTATO AND ITS SUBSTITUTES
V. ARE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES LUXURIES?
VI. FAT AND VITAMINES
VII. "SUGAR AND SPICE AND EVERYTHING NICE"
VIII. ON BEING ECONOMICAL AND PATRIOTIC AT THE SAME TIME
APPENDIX--SOME WAR TIME RECIPES
EVERYDAY FOODS IN WAR TIME
CHAPTER I
THE MILK PITCHER IN THE HOME
CHAPTER II
CEREALS WE OUGHT TO EAT
CHAPTER III
THE MEAT WE OUGHT TO SAVE
CHAPTER IV
THE POTATO AND ITS SUBSTITUTES
CHAPTER V
ARE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES LUXURIES?
CHAPTER VI
FATS AND VITAMINES
CHAPTER VII
"SUGAR AND SPICE AND EVERYTHING NICE"
CHAPTER VIII
ON BEING ECONOMICAL AND PATRIOTIC AT THE SAME TIME
APPENDIX
SOME WAR TIME RECIPES
BREAD AND MUFFINS
CAKE AND COOKIES
JAMS AND SANDWICH FILLINGS
SUBSTANTIAL HOT DISHES
PUDDINGS
FEEDING THE FAMILY
BY MARY SWARTZ ROSE
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
A LABORATORY HAND-BOOK FOR DIETETICS
BY MARY SWARTZ ROSE, PH.D.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I
FOOD VALUES AND FOOD REQUIREMENTS
THE COMPOSITION OF FOOD MATERIALS.
THE FUNCTIONS OF FOOD.
FOOD REQUIREMENT.
PART II
PROBLEMS IN DIETARY CALCULATIONS
REFERENCE TABLES
APPENDIX
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
THE FOOD PROBLEM
BY VERNON KELLOGG AND ALONZO E. TAYLOR. $1.25
TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
TWO TEXTBOOKS OF THE HOUSEHOLD ARTS
FOODS AND HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT
SHELTER AND CLOTHING
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
END OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK EVERYDAY FOODS IN WAR TIME
START: FULL LICENSE
THE FULL PROJECT GUTENBERG LICENSE
1.F.

Converted from "14293-8.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE COMPLETE BOOK OF CHEESE
BOB BROWN
THE WINE COOK BOOK
AMERICA COOKS
10,000 SNACKS
SALADS AND HERBS
THE SOUTH AMERICAN COOK BOOK
SOUPS, SAUCES AND GRAVIES
THE VEGETABLE COOK BOOK
LOOK BEFORE YOU COOK!
THE EUROPEAN COOK BOOK
THE WINING AND DINING QUIZ
MOST FOR YOUR MONEY
OUTDOOR COOKING
FISH AND SEAFOOD COOK BOOK
THE COUNTRY COOK BOOK
LET THERE BE BEER!
HOMEMADE HILARITY
TO
PHIL
ALPERT
INDEX OF RECIPES
AN EPICO-LYRICO BALLAD
FROM JETHRO BITHELL'S TRANSLATION
IN "THE DINNER KNELL"
BASIC WELSH RABBIT
BAKED FONDUES
OTHER FONDUES PLAIN AND FANCY, BAKED AND NOT
PUFFS
RAMEKINS OR RAMEQUINS
TWO ANCIENT ENGLISH RECIPES, STILL GOING STRONG
DOUGH
TOMATO PASTE
CHEESE
BUTTER AND CHEESE
BUTTERMILK CHEESE
COTTAGE CHEESE
CREAM CHEESE
CHEESECAKES
AMERICAN CHEESE SOUPS
CHEESE SALADS
SAUCE MORNAY
PLAIN CHEESE SAUCE
PARSLEYED CHEESE SAUCE
CORNUCOPIA OF CHEESE RECIPES
SUGGESTIONS
WITH A CHEESE SHAKER ON THE TABLE
CHEESE OMELETS
FOR THE CARAMEL
FOR THE FLAN
SANDWICHES AND SAVORY SNACKS
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
Y
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
END OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE COMPLETE BOOK OF CHEESE
START: FULL LICENSE
THE FULL PROJECT GUTENBERG LICENSE
1.F.

Converted from "14594.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
  CHAPTER 1.
  Section 1. General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
  Section 2. Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm
  Section 3. Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive
  Section 4. Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
  Section 5. General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works.

Converted from "15019-8.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
  Section 1. General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
  Section 2. Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm
  Section 3. Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive
  Section 4. Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
  Section 5. General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works.

Converted from "15464-8.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
  1 cupful of water or milk
  1 teaspoon soda
  1 cup cornmeal
  2 teaspoons salt
  4 cups milk
  4 cups rye flour
  6 teaspoons baking powder
  6 slices stale bread
  6 slices of bread cut in half
  6 lbs. fat (Fat for soap should be fat which is no longer useful

Converted from "8blgn10.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
M
START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK, THE BELGIAN COOKBOOK
THE BELGIAN COOK-BOOK
EDITED BY
MRS. BRIAN LUCK
PREFACE
M. LUCK.
PART I
CAULIFLOWER SOUP
FISH SOUP
STARVATION SOUP
IMMEDIATE SOUP, OR TEN MINUTES SOUP
CHERVIL SOUP
A GOOD PEA SOUP
WATERZOEI
A GOOD BELGIAN SOUP
AMBASSADOR SOUP
CRECY SOUP (BELGIAN RECIPE)
FLEMISH SOUP
ONION SOUP
POTAGE LEMAN
TOMATO SOUP
SOUP, CREAM OF ASPARAGUS
GREEN PEA SOUP
VEGETABLE SOUP
MUSHROOM CREAM SOUP
THE SOLDIER'S VEGETABLE SOUP
LEEK SOUP
CELERIS AU LARD
CABBAGE WITH SAUSAGES
A SALAD OF TOMATOES
POTATOES AND CHEESE
FRIDAY'S FEAST
RED CABBAGE
COOKED LETTUCE
STUFFED CAULIFLOWER
GOURMANDS' MUSHROOMS
CHIPPED POTATOES
APPLES AND SAUSAGES
STUFFED CHICORY
TOMATOES STUFFED WITH BEANS
CABBAGE AND POTATOES
A DISH OF HARICOT BEANS
POTATOES IN THE BELGIAN MANNER
TOMATOES AND SHRIMPS
FLEMISH ENDIVE
CAULIFLOWER AND SHRIMPS
BELGIAN CARROTS
STUFFED TOMATOES
RED CABBAGE
VEGETABLE SALAD
CHICORY
DRESSED CAULIFLOWER
BRUSSELS SPROUTS
RAGOUT OF MUTTON
STEWED SHOULDER OF MUTTON
SHOULDER OF MUTTON
MUTTON COLLOPS
SHOULDER OF MUTTON DRESSED LIKE KID
ROAST RUMP OF BEEF, BORDELAISE SAUCE
ROASTED FILLET OF BEEF
CARETAKER'S BEEF
BLANKENBERG BEEF
VEAL WITH TOMATOES
FRICANDEAU OF VEAL
VEAL CUTLETS WITH MADEIRA SAUCE
GRENADINS OF VEAL
VEAL WITH MUSHROOMS, OR THE CALF IN PARADISE
BLANQUETTE OF VEAL
VEAL CAKE, EXCELLENT FOR SUPPER
BREAST OF VEAL
OX TONGUE
DUTCH SAUCE FOR FISH
BEARNAISE SAUCE
MUSLIN SAUCE
SAUCE BORDELAISE
POOR MAN'S SAUCE
THE GOOD WIFE'S SAUCE
CREAM SAUCE
SAUCE AU DIABLE
FRICASSEE OF PIGEONS
HUNTER'S HARE
FLEMISH RABBIT
ROAST KID WITH VENISON SAUCE
BAKED RABBIT
LAEKEN RABBIT
RABBIT
HARE
RUM OMELETTE
THE CHILDREN'S BIRTHDAY DISH
A FRANGIPANI
STEWED PRUNES
CHOCOLATE CREAM
SNOWY MOUNTAINS
RICHELIEU RICE
EXCELLENT PASTE FOR PASTRY
CHOCOLATE CREAM
BELGIAN GINGERBREAD
APPLE FRITTERS
FOUR QUARTERS
SAFFRON RICE
SEMOLINA FRITTERS
SPECULOOS
GAUFRES FROM BRUSSELS
PAINS PERDUS
FRUIT FRITTERS
MOCHA CAKE
VANILLA CREAM
RUM CREAM
POUDING AUX POMMES
A NEW DISH OF APPLES
GOLDEN RICE
RIZ CONDE
CHOCOLATE CREAM
BAKED SOUFFLE
PEASANTS' EGGS
TWO RECIPES FOR TOMATOES AND EGGS
TOMATOES AND EGGS
MUSHROOM OMELETTE
ASPARAGUS OMELETTE
STUFFED EGGS
POACHED EGGS, TOMATO SAUCE
EGGS AND MUSHROOMS
BELGIAN EGGS
TO USE UP REMAINS OF MEAT
VEAL WITH ONIONS
VEAL CAKE
TO USE UP COLD MEAT
FLEMISH CARBONADE
A USE FOR COLD MUTTON
FLEMISH CARBONADES
FISH
REMAINS OF FISH
GOOD RISSOLES
CROQUETTES OF BOILED MEAT
CARBONADES DONE WITH BEER
SCRAPS OF MEAT
FRICADELLE
CHICORY AND HAM WITH CHEESE SAUCE
CROQUETTES OF VEAL
HOT-POT
HOCHE POT
HOCHE POT OF GHENT
CARBONADE OF FLANDERS
HEADLESS SPARROWS
MUTTON STEW
HOCHE POT GANTOIS
CHINESE CORKS
LIMPENS CHEESE
CHEESE CROQUETTES
CHEESE FONDANTS
POTATOES AND CHEESE
YORK HAM, SWEETBREADS, MADEIRA SAUCE
HAM WITH MADEIRA SAUCE
A DIFFICULT DISH OF EGGS
COUNTRY EGGS
FRENCH EGGS
OEUFS CELESTES
FLEMISH CARROTS
AUBERGINE OR EGG PLANT
POTATO CROQUETTES
HORS D'OEUVRES
POTATO DICE
ANCHOVIES
ANCHOVY SANDWICHES
ANCHOVY ROUNDS
ANCHOVY BISCUITS
ANCHOVY PATTIES
MOCK ANCHOVIES
HERRING AND MAYONNAISE
SWEET DRINKS AND CORDIALS. ORGEAT
HAWTHORN CORDIAL
DUTCH NOYEAU
LAVENDER WATER
HOT BURGUNDY
FISH AND CUSTARD
HAKE AND POTATOES
VERY NICE SKATE
TO KEEP SPRATS
TO KEEP MACKEREL FOR A WEEK
A BROWN DISH OF FISH
BAKED HADDOCKS
FILLETED SOLES AU FROMAGE
FILLETED FISH, WITH WHITE SAUCE AND TOMATOES
THE MILLER'S COD
DUTCH HERRINGS
REMAINS OF COD
I
II
III
PART II
M. LUCK.
HORS D'OEUVRE
CARROT SOUP
SORREL SOUP
OSTEND SOUP
ANOTHER SORREL SOUP
HASTY SOUP
ARTICHOKES A LA VEDETTE
SURPRISE POTATOES
VEGETABLE SALADS
TOMATOES A LA SIR EDWARD GREY HOMMAGE
STUFFED CARROTS
TO COOK ASPARAGUS
TOMATOES IN HASTE
KIDNEYS AND LETTUCE
TOMATO RICE
RICE WITH EGGS
BROAD BEANS IN SAUCE
OMELETTE OF PEAS
BRUSSELS ARTICHOKES
[F. R.]
BELGIAN SALAD
BRUSSELS CARROTS
CARROTS AND EGGS
CUCUMBERS AND TOMATOES
RED HARICOTS
POTATOES A LA BRABANCONNE
FLEMISH PEAS
CHOU-CROUTE
SPINACH FRITTERS
HARLEQUIN CABBAGES
LITTLE TOWERS OF SALAD
PUFFS FOR FRIDAY
HADDOCK A LA CARDINAL
SKATE STEW
TO DRESS COARSE FISH
[F. R.]
FLEMISH SALAD
FLEMISH SAUCE
BEEF SQUARES
IMITATION CUTLETS
KIDNEYS WITH MADEIRA
PIGS' TROTTERS IN BLANQUETTE
LOIN OF MUTTON IN THE POT
OX TONGUE WITH SPINACH AND WHITE SAUCE
VEAL FRITTERS
STEWED BEEF
A MUTTON SALAD
SAUSAGE PATTIES
SAUSAGE AND POTATOES
RAGOUT OF COLD MEAT
A QUICKLY MADE STEW
GRENADINES OF VEAL
HOCHE POT
PIGEON AND CABBAGE ROLLS
REMAINS OF SAUSAGE
SHOULDER OF LAMB A LA BEIGE
STEWED BEEF
BEEF AND APRICOTS
FOR AN INVALID
INVALIDS' EGGS
A SWEET FOR THE CHILDREN
QUINCE CUSTARD
YELLOW PLUMS AND RICE
BRABANT PANCAKE
DELICIOUS SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS
FRUIT JELLIES
STRAWBERRY FANCY
PINK RICE
MILITARY PRUNES
MADELINE CHERRIES
STRAWBERRY TARTLETS
BUTTERFLIES
CHERRY AND STRAWBERRY COMPOTE
CHOCOLATE CUSTARD
GOOSEBERRY CREAM WITHOUT CREAM
CHOCOLATE PUDDINGS
INDEX
END OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK, THE BELGIAN COOKBOOK
START**THE SMALL PRINT!**FOR PUBLIC DOMAIN EBOOKS**START
BEFORE!* YOU USE OR READ THIS EBOOK
ABOUT PROJECT GUTENBERG-TM EBOOKS
LIMITED WARRANTY; DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES
THIS EBOOK IS OTHERWISE PROVIDED TO YOU "AS-IS". NO OTHER
INDEMNITY
WHAT IF YOU WANT TO SEND MONEY EVEN IF YOU DON'T HAVE TO?

Converted from "8cury10.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE FORME OF CURY
THE FORME OF CURY,
A ROLL OF ANCIENT ENGLISH COOKERY.
SIR,
SIR,
S. PEGGE.
PREFACE
TO THE
CURIOUS ANTIQUARIAN READER.
THE
FORME OF CURY.
XPLICIT TABULA.
FOR TO MAKE GRONDEN BENES [1]. I.
FOR TO MAKE DRAWEN BENES. II.
FOR TO MAKE GREWEL FORCED [1]. III.
CABOCHES [1] IN POTAGE. IIII.
RAPES [1] IN POTAGE. V.
EOWTES [1] OF FLESSH. VI.
HEBOLACE [1]. VII.
GOURDES IN POTAGE. VIII.
RYSE [1] OF FLESH. IX.
FUNGES [1]. X.
BURSEN [1]. XI.
CORAT [1]. XII.
NOUMBLES. XIII.
ROO [1] BROTH. XIIII.
TREDURE [1]. XV.
MONCHELET [1]. XVI.
BUKKENADE [1]. XVII.
CONNATES [1]. XVIII.
DREPEE [1]. XIX.
EGURDOUCE [1]. XXI.
CAPOUNS IN COUNCYS [1]. XXII.
HARES [1] IN TALBOTES [2]. XXIII.
HARES IN PAPDELE [1]. XXIIII.
CONNYNGES IN CYNEE [1]. XXV.
CONNYNGES IN GRAUEY. XXVI.
CHYKENS IN GRAVEY. XXVII.
FYLETTES [1] OF GALYNTYNE [2]. XXVIII.
PYGGES IN SAWSE SAWGE [1]. XXIX.
SAWSE MADAME. XXX.
GEES IN HOGGEPOT [1]. XXXI.
CARNEL [1] OF PORK. XXXII.
CHYKENNS [1] IN CAWDEL. XXXIII.
CHYKENS IN HOCCHEE [1]. XXXIIII.
FOR TO BOILE FESAUNTES. PARTRUCHES. CAPONS AND CURLEWES. XXXV.
BLANK MAUNGER [1]. XXXVI.
BLANK DESSORRE [1]. XXXVII.
MORREE [1]. XXXVIII.
CHARLET [1]. XXXIX.
CHARLET YFORCED. XX.II.
CAWDEL FERRY [1]. XX.II. I.
JUSSHELL [1]. XX.II. III.
JUSSHELL ENFORCED [1]. XX.II. IIII.
MORTREWS [1]. XX.II. V.
MORTREWS BLANK. XX.II. VI.
BREWET OF ALMONY [1]. XX.II. VII.
PEIOUNS [1] YSTEWED. XX.II. VIII.
LOSEYNS [1]. XX.II. IX.
TARTLETTES [1]. XX.II. X.
PYNNONADE [1]. XX.II. XI.
ROSEE [1]. XX.II. XII.
CORMARYE [1]. XX.II. XIII.
NEWE NOUMBLES OF DEER. XX.II. XIIII.
NOTA. XX.II. XV.
NOTA. XX.II. XVI.
SPYNEE [1]. XX.II.XVII.
CHYRYSE [1] XX.II. XVIII.
PAYN FONDEW [1]. XX.II. XIX.
CROTOUN [1]. XX.III.
VYNE GRACE [1]. XX.III. I.
FONNELL [1]. XX.III. II.
DOUCE AME [1]. XX.III. III.
CONNYNGES IN CYRIP [1]. XX.III. IIII.
LECHE LUMBARD [1]. XX.III. V.
CONNYNGES IN CLERE BROTH. XX.III. VI.
PAYN RAGOUN [1]. XX.III. VII.
LETE LARDES [1]. XX.III. VIII.
FURMENTE WITH PORPAYS [1]. XX.III. IX.
PERREY OF PESOUN [1]. XX.III. X.
PESON OF ALMAYNE [1]. XX.III. XI
CHYCHES [1]. XX.III. XII.
FRENCHE [1]. XX.III. XIII.
MAKKE [1]. XX.III. XIIII.
AQUAPATYS [1]. XX.III. XV.
SALAT. XX.III. XVI.
FENKEL IN SOPPES. XX.III. XVII.
CLAT [1]. XX.III. XVIII.
APPULMOY [1]. XX.III. XIX.
SLETE [1] SOPPES. XX.IIII.
LETELORYE [1]. XX.IIII. I.
SOWPES DORRY [1]. XX.IIII. II.
RAPE [1]. XX.IIII. III.
SAWSE SARZYNE [1]. XX.IIII. IIII.
GREWEL OF ALMAUNDES. XX.IIII. VI.
CAWDEL OF ALMAUND MYLK. XX.IIII. VII.
JOWTES [1] OF ALMAUND MYLKE. XX.IIII. VIII.
FYGEY [1]. XX.IIII. IX.
POCHEE [1]. XX.IIII. X.
BREWET OF AYRENN. XX.IIII. XI.
MACROWS [1]. XX.IIII. XII.
TOSTEE [1]. XX.IIII. XIII.
GYNGAWDRY [1]. XX.IIII. XIIII.
ERBOWLE [1]. XX.IIII. XV.
RESMOLLE [1]. XX.IIII. XVI.
VYAUNDE CYPRE [1]. XX.IIII. XVII.
VYANDE CYPRE OF SAMOUN [1]. XX.IIII. XVIII.
VYANND RYAL. XX.IIII. XIX.
COMPOST [1]. C.
GELE [1] OF FYSSH. C. I.
GELE OF FLESSH. C. II.
CHYSANNE [1]. C. III.
CONGUR [1] IN SAWSE. C. IIII.
RYGH [1] IN SAWSE. C. V.
MAKEREL IN SAWSE. C. VI.
PYKES IN BRASEY [1]. C. VII.
PORPEYS IN BROTH. C. VIII.
BALLOC [1] BROTH. C. IX.
ELES IN BREWET. C. X.
CAWDEL OF SAMOUN C.XI.
PLAYS IN CYEE. C.XII.
FOR TO MAKE FLAUMPEYNS. C. XIII.
FOR TO MAKE NOUMBLES IN LENT. C. XIIII.
FOR TO MAKE CHAWDON [1] FOR LENT. C. XV.
FURMENTE WITH PORPEYS. C. XVI.
FYLETTES IN GALYTYNE. C. XVII.
VEEL IN BUKNADE [1]. C. XVIII.
SOOLES IN CYNEE [1]. C. XIX.
TENCHES IN CYNEE. XX.VI.
OYSTERS IN GRAVEY. XX.VI. I.
MUSKELS [1] IN BREWET. XX.VI. II.
OYSTERS IN CYNEE. XX.VI. III.
CAWDEL OF MUSKELS. XX.VI. IIII.
MORTREWS OF FYSSH. XX.VI. V.
LAUMPREYS IN GALYNTYNE. XX.VI. VI.
LAUMPROUNS IN GALYNTYNE. XX.VI. VII.
LOSEYNS [1] IN FYSSH DAY. XX.VI. VIII.
SOWPER OF GALYNTYNE [1]. XX.VI. IX.
SOBRE SAWSE. XX.VI. X.
COLD BREWET. XX.VI. XI.
PEERES [1] IN CONFYT. XX.VI. XII.
EGURDOUCE [1] OF FYSSHE. XX.VI. XIII.
COLDE BREWET. XX.VI. XIIII.
PEVORAT [1] FOR VEEL AND VENYSOUN. XX.VI. XV.
SAWSE [2] BLAUNCHE FOR CAPOUNS YSODE. XX.VI. XVI.
SAWSE NOYRE FOR CAPOUNS YROSTED. XX.VI. XVII.
GALYNTYNE [1]. XX.VI. XVIII.
GYNGENER [1]. XX.VI. XIX.
VERDE [1] SAWSE. XX.VII.
SAWSE NOYRE FOR MALARD. XX.VII. I.
CAWDEL FOR GEES. XX.VII. II.
CHAWDOUN [1] FOR SWANNES XX.VII. III.
SAWSE CAMELYNE [1]. XX.VII. IIII.
LUMBARD MUSTARD. XX.VII. V.
NOTA. XX.VII. VI.
NOTA. XX.VII. VII.
FRY BLAUNCHED. XX.VII. VIII.
FRYTOUR OF PASTERNAKES OF APPLES [1]. XX.VII. IX.
FRYTOUR OF MYLKE. XX.VII. X.
FRYTOUR OF ERBES. XX.VII. XI.
RASYOLS [1]. XX.VII. XII.
WHYTE MYLATES [1]. XX.VII. XIII.
CRUSTARDES [1] OF FLESSH. XX.VII. XIIII.
MYLATES OF PORK. XX.VII. XV.
CRUSTARDES OF FYSSHE. XX.VII. XVI.
CRUSTARDES OF EERBIS [1] ON FYSSH DAY. XX.VII. XVII.
LESSHES [1] FRYED IN LENTON [2]. XX.VII. XVIII.
WASTELS YFARCED. XX.VII. XIX.
SAWGE YFARCED. XX.VIII.
SAWGEAT [1]. XX.VIII. I.
CRYSPES [1]. XX.VIII. II.
CRYSPELS. XX.VIII. III.
TARTEE. XX.VIII. IIII.
TART IN YMBRE [1] DAY. XX.VIII. V.
TART DE BRY [1]. XX.VIII. VI.
TART DE BRYMLENT [1]. XX.VIII. VII.
TARTES OF FLESH [1]. XX.VIII. VIII.
TARTLETES. XX.VIII. IX.
TARTES OF FYSSHE. XX.VIII. X.
SAMBOCADE [1]. XX.VIII. XI.
ERBOLATES [1]. XX.VIII. XII.
NYSEBEK [1]. XX.VIII. XIII.
FOR TO MAKE POMME DORRYLE [1] AND OÞER ÞNGES. XX.VIII. XIIII.
COTAGRES [1]. XX.VIII. XV.
HERT ROWEE [1]. XX.VIII. XVI.
POTEWS [1]. XX.VIII. XVII.
SACHUS [1]. XX.VIII. XVIII.
BURSEWS [1]. XX.VIII. XIX.
SPYNOCHES [1] YFRYED. XX.IX.
BENES YFRYED. XX.IX. I.
RYSSHEWS [1] OF FRUYT. XX.IX. II.
DARYOLS [1]. XX.IX. III.
FLAUMPENS [1]. XX.IX. IIII.
CHEWETES [1] ON FLESSHE DAY. XX.IX. V.
CHEWETES ON FYSSH DAY. XX.IX. VI.
HASTLETES [1] OF FRUYT. XX.IX. VII.
COMADORE [1]. XX.IX. VII.
CHASTLETES [1], XX.IX. IX.
FOR TO MAKE II. [1] PECYS OF FLESSH TO FASTEN TOGYDER. XX.IX. X.
FOR TO MAKE BLANK MAUNGER [1]. XX.IX. XII.
FOR TO MAKE BLANK DESNE [1]. XX.IX. XIII.
FOR TO MAKE MAWMENNY [1]. XX.IX. XIIII.
[1] XPLICIT.
THE FOLLOWING MEMORANDUM AT THE END OF THE ROLL.
ANCIENT COOKERY. A.D. 1381.
I. FOR TO MAKE FURMENTY [1].
III.
IV.
V. MORTERELYS [1].
VI. CAPONYS INC ONEYS.
VII. HENNYS [1] IN BRUET.
VIII. HARYS [1] IN CMEE [2].
IX. HARIS IN TALBOTAYS.
X. CONYNGGYS [1] IN GRAVEY.
XI. FOR TO MAKE A COLYS [1].
XII. FOR TO MAKE NOMBLES [1].
XIII. FOR TO MAKE BLANCHE BREWET DE ALYNGYN.
XIV. FOR TO MAKE BLOMANGER [1].
XV. FOR TO MAKE AFRONCHEMOYLE [1].
XVI. FOR TO MAKE BRYMEUS.
XVII. FOR TO MAKE APPULMOS [1].
XVIII. FOR TO MAKE A FROYS [1].
XIX. FOR TO MAKE FRUTURS [1].
XX. FOR TO MAKE CHANKE [1].
XXI. FOR TO MAKE JUSSEL.
XXII. FOR TO MAKE GEES [1] IN OCHEPOT [2].
XXIII. FOR TO MAKE EYRYN IN BRUET.
XXIV. FOR TO MAKE CRAYTOUN [1].
XXV. FOR TO MAKE MYLK ROST.
XXVI. FOR TO MAKE CRYPPYS [1].
XXVII. FOR TO MAKE BERANDYLES [1].
XXVIII. FOR TO MAKE CAPONS IN CASSELYS.
XXIX. FOR TO MAKE THE BLANK SURRY [1].
XXX. FOR TO MAKE MANMENE [1].
XXXI. FOR TO MAKE BRUET OF ALMAYNE.
XXXII. FOR RO MAKE BRUET OF LOMBARDYE.
XXXIII. FOR TO MAKE BLOMANGER [1].
XXXIV. FOR TO MAKE SANDALE THAT PARTY TO BLOMANGER.
XXXV. FOR TO MAKE APULMOS [1].
XXXVI. FOR TO MAKE METE GELEE [1] THAT IT BE WEL CHARIAUNT.
XXXVII. FOR TO MAKE MURREY [1].
XXXVIII. FOR TO MAKE A PENCHE OF EGGES.
XXXIX. FOR TO MAKE COMYN.
XLII. FOR TO MAKE POMMEDORRY [1].
XLIII. FOR TO MAKE LONGE DE BUF [1].
XLIV. FOR TO MAKE REW DE RUMSY.
XLV. FOR TO MAKE BUKKENADE [1].
XLVI. FOR TO MAKE SPINE [1].
XLVII. FOR TO MAKE ROSEE [1] AND FRESEE AND SWAN SCHAL BE YMAD IN THE
XLVIII. FOR TO MAKE AN AMENDEMENT FORMETE THAT YS TO [1] SALT AND
XLIX. FOR TO MAKE RAPY [1].
L. FOR TO MAKE AN EGGE DOWS [1].
LI. FOR TO MAKE A MALLARD IN CYNEY [1].
LII. FOR TO MAKE A BUKKENADE [1].
LIII. FOR TO MAKE A ROO BROTH [1].
LIV. FOR TO MAK A BRUET OF SARCYNESSE.
LV. FOR TO MAKE A GELY [1].
LVI. FOR TO KEPE VENISON FRO RESTYNG.
LVII. FOR TO DO AWAY RESTYN [1] OF VENISOUN.
LVIII. FOR TO MAKE POUNDORROGE [1].
EXPLICIT SERVICIUM DE CARNIBUS.
I. FOR TO MAKE EGARDUSE [1].
II. FOR TO MAKE RAPY [1].
III. FOR TO MAKE FYGEY.
IIII. FOR TO MAKE POMMYS MORLES.
V. FOR TO MAKE RYS MOYLE [1].
VI. FOR TO MAKE SOWPYS DORRY.
VII. FOR TO MAKE BLOMANGER [1] OF FYSCH.
VIII. FOR TO MAKE A POTAGE OF RYS.
IX. FOR TO MAKE LAMPREY FRESCH IN GALENTYNE [1].
X. FOR TO MAKE SALT LAMPREY IN GALENTYNE [1].
XI. FOR TO MAKE LAMPREYS IN BRUET.
XII. FOR TO MAKE A STORCHOUN.
XIII. FOR TO MAKE SOLYS IN BRUET.
XIV. FOR TO MAKE OYSTRYN IN BRUET.
XV. FOR TO MAKE ELYS IN BRUET.
XVI. FOR TO MAKE A LOPISTER.
XVII. FOR TO MAKE PORREYNE.
XVIII. FOR TO MAKE CHIRESEYE.
XIX. FOR TO MAKE BLANK DE SUR' [1].
XX. FOR TO MAKE GRAVE ENFORSE.
XXI. FOR TO MAKE HONY DOUSE [1].
XXII. FOR TO MAKE A POTAGE FENEBOILES.
XXIII. FOR TO MAKE TARTYS IN APPLIS.
XXIV. FOR TO MAKE RYS ALKER'.
XXV. FOR TO MAKE TARTYS OF FYSCH OWT OF LENTE.
XXVI. FOR TO MAKE MORREY [1].
XXVII. FOR TO MAKE FLOWNYS [1] IN LENTE.
XXVIII. FOR TO MAKE RAPEE [1].
XXIX. FOR TO MAKE A PORREY CHAPELEYN.
XXX. FOR TO MAKE FORMENTY ON A FICHSSDAY [1].
XXXI. FOR TO MAKE BLANK DE SYRY [1].
XXXII. FOR TO MAKE A PYNADE OR PYVADE.
XXXIII. FOR TO MAKE A BALOURGLY [1] BROTH.
EXPLICIT DE COQUINA QUE EST OPTIMA MEDICINA.
INDEX AND GLOSSARY TO MR. BRANDER'S ROLL OF COOKERY.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
K.
L.
M.
N.
O.
P.
Q.
R.
S.
T.
U.
V.
W.
Y.
F I N I S.
END OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE FORME OF CURY
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BEFORE!* YOU USE OR READ THIS EBOOK
ABOUT PROJECT GUTENBERG-TM EBOOKS
LIMITED WARRANTY; DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES
THIS EBOOK IS OTHERWISE PROVIDED TO YOU "AS-IS". NO OTHER
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Converted from "8iccr10.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
  1 quart of cream
  1 quart of fresh apricots
  1 quart of cream
  1 quart of cream
  1 teaspoonful of vanilla
  1 quart of cream
  1 tablespoonful of lemon juice
  1 quart of cream
  1 teaspoonful of vanilla
  1 quart of cream
  1 quart of cream
  1 quart of cream
  1 quart of cream
  2 drops of Angostura Bitters, or
  2 ounces of Baker's chocolate
  4 ounces of Baker's chocolate
  4 peach kernels
  6 eggs
  8 lambs' sweetbreads

Converted from "8loc110.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
  1. Without doubt, the greatest problem confronting the human race is that of food. In order to exist, every person must eat; but eating simply to keep life in the body is not enough. Aside from this, the body must be supplied with an ample amount of energy to carry on each day's work, as well as with the material needed for its growth, repair, and working power. To meet these requirements of the human body, there is nothing to take the place of food, not merely any kind, however, but the right kind. Indeed, so important is the right kind of food in the scheme of life that the child deprived of it neither grows nor increases in weight, and the adult who is unable to secure enough of it for adequate nourishment is deficient in nerve force and working power. If a person is to get the best out of life, the food taken into the body must possess real sustaining power and supply the tissues with the necessary building material; and this truth points out that there are facts and principles that must be known in order that the proper selection of food may be made, that it may be so prepared as to increase its value, and that economy in its selection, preparation, use, and care may be exercised.
  2. Probably the most important of these principles is the cooking of food. While this refers especially to the preparation of food by subjecting edible materials to the action of heat, it involves much more. The cooking of food is a science as well as an art, and it depends for its success on known and established principles. In its full sense, cookery means not only the ability to follow a recipe, thereby producing a successfully cooked dish, but also the ability to select materials, a knowledge of the ways in which to prepare them, an understanding of their value for the persons for whom they are prepared, and ingenuity in serving foods attractively and in making the best use of food that may be left over from the previous meals, so that there will be practically no waste. Thus, while cookery in all its phases is a broad subject, it is one that truly belongs to woman, not only because of the pleasure she derives in preparing food for the members of her family, but because she is particularly qualified to carry on the work.
  3. The providing of food in the home is a matter that usually falls to the lot of the housewife; in fact, on her depends the wise use of the family income. This means, then, that whether a woman is earning her own livelihood and has only herself to provide for, or whether she is spending a part of some other person's income, as, for instance, her father's or her husband's, she should understand how to proportion her money so as to provide the essential needs, namely, food, clothing, and shelter. In considering the question of providing food, the housewife should set about to determine what three meals a day will cost, and in this matter she should be guided by the thought that the meals must be the best that can possibly be purchased for the amount of money allowed for food from the family income and that their cost must not exceed the allotment. To a great extent she can control the cost of her foods by selecting them with care and then making good use of what her money has bought. It is only by constant thought and careful planning, however, that she will be able to keep within her means, and she will find that her greatest assistance lies in studying foods and the ways in which to prepare them.
  4. A factor that should not be disregarded in the problem of food is
  5. Another matter that constantly confronts the housewife is what foods she shall select for each day's meals. To be successful, all meals should be planned with the idea of making them wholesome and appetizing, giving them variety, and using the left-overs. Every woman should understand that food is cooked for both hygienic and esthetic reasons; that is, it must be made safe and wholesome for health's sake and must satisfy the appetite, which to a considerable degree is mental and, of course, is influenced by the appearance of the food. When the housewife knows how to cook ordinary foods well, she has an excellent foundation from which to obtain variety in the diet--by which in these lessons is meant the daily food and drink of any individual, and not something prescribed by a physician for a person who is ill--for then it is simply a matter of putting a little careful thought into the work she is doing in order to get ideas of new ways in which to prepare these same foods and of utilizing foodstuffs she has on hand. However, ample time must always be allowed for the preparation of meals, for no one can expect to produce tasty meals by rushing into the kitchen just before meal time and getting up the easiest thing in the quickest manner. Well-planned meals carefully prepared will stimulate interest in the next day's bill of fare and will prove extremely beneficial to all concerned.
  6. In the practice of cookery it is also important that the meals be planned and the cooking done for the sake of building the human body and caring for it. As soon as any woman realizes that both the present and the future welfare of the persons for whom she is providing foods depend on so many things that are included in cookery, her interest in this branch of domestic science will increase; and in making a study of it she may rest assured that there is possibly no other calling that affords a more constant source of enjoyment and a better opportunity for acquiring knowledge, displaying skill, and helping others to be well and happy.
  7. From what has been pointed out, it will readily be seen that a correct knowledge of cookery and all that it implies is of extreme importance to those who must prepare food for others; indeed, it is for just such persons--the housewife who must solve cookery problems from day to day, as well as girls and women who must prepare themselves to perform the duties with which they will be confronted when they take up the management of a household and its affairs--that these lessons in cookery are intended.
  8. Each beginner in cookery is therefore urged to master every lesson in the order in which she receives it and to carry out diligently every detail. No lesson should be disregarded as soon as it is understood, for the instruction given in it bears a close relation to the entire subject and should be continually put into practice as progress is made. This thought applies with particular emphasis to the Sections relating to the essentials of cookery. These should be used in connection with all other Sections as books of reference and an aid in calling to mind points that must eventually become a part of a woman's cookery knowledge. By carrying on her studies systematically and following directions carefully, the beginner will find the cooking of foods a simple matter and will take delight in putting into practice the many things that she learns.
  9. Each one of the phases of cookery has its importance, but if success is to be achieved in this art, careful attention must be given to the selection of what is to be cooked, so as to determine its value and suitability. To insure the best selection, therefore, the housewife should decide whether the food material she purchases will fit the needs of the persons who are to eat it; whether the amount of labor involved in the preparation will be too great in proportion to the results obtained; whether the loss in preparation, that is, the proportion of refuse to edible matter, will be sufficient to affect the cost materially; what the approximate loss in cooking will be; whether the food will serve to the best advantage after it is cooked; and, finally, whether or not all who are to eat it will like it. The market price also is a factor that cannot be disregarded, for, as has been explained, it is important to keep within the limits of the amount that may be spent and at the same time provide the right kind of nourishment for each member of the family.
  10. In order to select food material that will meet the requirements just set forth, three important matters must be considered; namely, the
  11. Although, as has just been stated, food may be considered as anything that the human engine can make over into tissue or use in living and working, not all foods are equally desirable any more than all materials are equally good in the construction of a steam engine and in the production of its working power. Those food substances which are the most wholesome and healthful are the ones to be chosen, but proper choice cannot be made unless the buyer knows of what the particular food consists and what it is expected to do. To aid in the selection of food, therefore, it is extremely necessary to become familiar with the five substances, constituents, or principles of which foods are made up; namely, water, mineral matter, or ash, protein, fat, and carbohydrate. A knowledge of these will help also in determining the cooking methods to adopt, for this depends on the effect that heat has on the various substances present in a food. Of course, so far as flavor is concerned, it is possible for the experienced cook to prepare many dishes successfully without knowing the effect of heat on the different food constituents; but to cook intelligently, with that success which makes for actual economy and digestibility, certain facts must be known concerning the food principles and the effect of dry and moist heat on foods.
  12. Water.--Of the various constituents that are found in the human body, water occurs in the largest quantity. As a food substance, it is an extremely important feature of a person's diet. Its chief purpose is to replenish the liquids of the body and to assist in the digestion of food. Although nature provides considerable amounts of water in most foods, large quantities must be taken in the diet as a beverage. In fact, it is the need of the body for water that has led to the development of numerous beverages. Besides being necessary in building up the body and keeping it in a healthy condition, water has a special function to perform in cooking, as is explained later. Although this food substance is extremely essential to life, it is seldom considered in the selection of food, because, as has just been mentioned, nearly all foods contain water.
  13. Mineral Matter.--Ranking next to water in the quantity contained in the human body is mineral matter. This constituent, which is also called
  14. Protein.--The food substance known as protein is a very important factor in the growth and repair of the body; in fact, these processes cannot be carried on unless protein is present in the diet. However, while a certain quantity of protein is essential, the amount is not very large and more than is required is likely to be harmful, or, since the body can make no use of it, to be at least waste material. The principal sources of protein are lean meat, eggs, milk, certain grains, nuts, and the legumes, which include such foods as beans and peas. Because of the ease with which they are digested, meat, fish, eggs, and milk are more valuable sources of protein than bread, beans, and nuts. However, as the foods that are most valuable for proteins cost more than others, a mixed diet is necessary if only a limited amount of money with which to purchase foods is available.
  15. So much is involved in the cooking of foods containing protein that the effect of heat on such foods should be thoroughly understood. The cooking of any food, as is generally understood, tends to break up the food and prepare it for digestion. However, foods have certain characteristics, such as their structure and texture, that influence their digestibility, and the method of cooking used or the degree to which the cooking is carried so affects these characteristics as to increase or decrease the digestibility of the food. In the case of foods containing protein, unless the cooking is properly done, the application of heat is liable to make the protein indigestible, for the heat first coagulates this substance--that is, causes it to become thick--and then, as the heat increases, shrinks and hardens it. This fact is clearly demonstrated in the cooking of an egg, the white of which is the type of protein called albumin. In a raw egg, the albumin is nearly liquid, but as heat is applied, it gradually coagulates until it becomes solid. If the egg is cooked too fast or too long, it toughens and shrinks and becomes less palatable, less attractive, and less digestible. However, if the egg is properly cooked after the heat has coagulated the albumin, the white will remain tender and the yolk will be fine and mealy in texture, thus rendering it digestible.
  16. FATS.--The food substances just discussed--water, mineral matter, and protein--yield the materials required for building and repairing the tissues of the body, but, as has been explained, the body also requires foods that produce energy, or working power. By far the greater part of the total solids of food taken into the body serve this purpose, and of these fats form a large percentage. Although fats make up such a large proportion of the daily food supply, they enter into the body composition to a less extent than do the food substances that have been explained. The fats commonly used for food are of both animal and vegetable origin, such as lard, suet, butter, cream, olive oil, nut oil, and cottonseed oil. The ordinary cooking temperatures have comparatively little effect on fat, except to melt it if it is solid. The higher temperatures decompose at least some of it, and thus liberate substances that may be irritating to the digestive tract.
  17. CARBOHYDRATES.--Like fats, the food substances included in the term carbohydrates supply the body with energy. However, fats and carbohydrates differ in the forms in which they supply energy, the former producing it in the most concentrated form and the latter in the most economical form.
  18. STARCH, one of the chief forms of carbohydrates, is found in only the vegetable kingdom. It is present in large quantities in the grains and in potatoes; in fact, nearly all vegetables contain large or small amounts of it. It is stored in the plant in the form of granules that lie within the plant cells.
  19. SUGAR, another important form of carbohydrate, is mainly of vegetable origin, except that which is found in milk and called
  20. CELLULOSE is a form of carbohydrate closely related to starch. It helps to form the structure of plants and vegetables. Very little cellulose is digested, but it should not be ignored, because it gives the necessary bulk to the food in which it occurs and because strict attention must be paid to the cooking of it. As cellulose usually surrounds nutritive material of vegetable origin, it must be softened and loosened sufficiently by cooking to permit the nutritive material to be dissolved by the digestive juices. Then, too, in old vegetables, there is more starch and the cellulose is harder and tougher, just as an old tree is much harder than a sapling. This, then, accounts for the fact that rapid cooking is needed for some vegetables and slow cooking for others, the method and the time of cooking depending on the presence and the consistency of the cellulose that occurs in the food.
  21. IMPORTANCE OF A VARIETY OF FOODS.--Every one of the five food substances just considered must be included in a person's diet; yet, with the exception of milk, no single food yields the right amounts of material necessary for tissue building and repair and for heat and energy. Even milk is in the right proportion, as far as its food substances are concerned, only for babies and very young children. It will thus be seen that to provide the body with the right foods, the diet must be such as to include all the food substances. In food selection, therefore, the characteristics of the various food substances must be considered well. Fats yield the most heat, but are the most slowly digested. Proteins and carbohydrates are more quickly digested than fats, but, in equal amounts, have less than half as much food value. Water and mineral salts do not yield heat, but are required to build tissue and to keep the body in a healthy condition. In addition, it is well to note that a well-balanced diet is one that contains all of the five food substances in just the right proportion in which the individual needs them to build up the body, repair it, and supply it with energy. What this proportion should be, however, cannot be stated offhand, because the quantity and kind of food substances necessarily vary with the size, age, and activity of each person.
  22. Nearly all foods are complex substances, and they differ from one another in what is known as their value, which is measured by the work the food does in the body either as a tissue builder or as a producer of energy. However, in considering food value, the person who prepares food must not lose sight of the fact that the individual appetite must be appealed to by a sufficient variety of appetizing foods. There would be neither economy nor advantage in serving food that does not please those who are to eat it.
  23. To come to a correct appreciation of the value of different foods, it is necessary to understand the unit employed to measure the amount of work that foods do in the body. This unit is the CALORIE, or calory, and it is used to measure foods just as the inch, the yard, the pound, the pint, and the quart are the units used to measure materials and liquids; however, instead of measuring the food itself, it determines its food value, or fuel value. To illustrate what is meant, consider, for instance, 1/2 ounce of sugar and 1/2 ounce of butter. As far as the actual weight of these two foods is concerned, they are equal; but with regard to the work they do in the body they differ considerably. Their relative value in the body, however, can be determined if they are measured by some unit that can be applied to both. It is definitely known that both of them produce heat when they are oxidized, that is, when they are combined with oxygen; thus, the logical way of measuring them is to determine the quantity of heat that will be produced when they are eaten and united with oxygen, a process that causes the liberation of heat. The calorie is the unit by which this heat can be measured, it being the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pint of water 4 degrees Fahrenheit, which is the name of the thermometer commonly used in the home. When burned as fuel, a square of butter weighing 1/2 ounce produces enough heat to raise 1 pint of water 400 degrees Fahrenheit, and it will yield the same amount of heat when it is eaten and goes through the slow process of oxidation in the body. On the other hand, 1/2 ounce of sugar upon being oxidized will produce only enough heat to raise the temperature of 1 pint of water about 230 degrees Fahrenheit. Thus, as will be seen, 1/2 ounce of butter has a value of approximately 100 calories, whereas 1/2 ounce of sugar contains only about 57-1/2 calories.
  24. The third requirement in the selection of food, namely, its digestion and absorption, depends considerably on the persons who are to be fed. Food that is chosen for adults entirely would not be the same as that intended for both young persons and adults; neither would food that is to be fed to children or persons who are ill be the same as that which is to be served to robust adults who do a normal amount of work. No hard-and-fast rules can be laid down here for this phase of food selection, but as these lessons in cookery are taken up in turn, the necessary knowledge regarding digestibility will be acquired.
  25. The term cookery, as has been explained, means the preparation of both hot and cold dishes for use as food, as well as the selection of the materials or substances that are to be cooked. The importance of cooking foods by subjecting them to the action of heat has been recognized for ages; and while it is true that there are many foods that appeal to the appetite in their raw state and still others that can be eaten either raw or cooked, there are several reasons why it is desirable to cook food, as will be seen from the following
  26. Food is cooked by the application of heat, which may be either moist or dry. While it is true that the art of cooking includes the preparation of material that is served or eaten raw, cooking itself is impossible without heat; indeed, the part of cooking that requires the most skill and experience is that in which heat is involved. Explicit directions for carrying on the various cooking processes depend on the kind of stove, the cooking utensils, and even the atmospheric conditions. In truth, the results of some processes depend so much on the state of the atmosphere that they are not successful on a day on which it is damp and heavy; also, as is well known, the stove acts perfectly on some days, whereas on other days it seems to have a stubborn will of its own. Besides the difficulties mentioned, the heat itself sometimes presents obstacles in the cooking of foods, to regulate it in such a way as to keep it uniform being often a hard matter. Thus, a dish may be spoiled by subjecting it to heat that is too intense, by cooking it too long, or by not cooking it rapidly enough. All these points must be learned, and the best way to master them is to put into constant practice the principles that are involved in cookery.
  27. Without doubt, the first step in gaining a mastery of cookery is to become familiar with the different methods and processes, the ways in which they are applied, and the reasons for applying them. There are numerous ways of cooking food, but the principal processes are boiling, stewing, steaming, dry steaming, braizing, fricasseeing, roasting, baking, broiling, pan broiling, frying, and sautéing. Which one of these to use will depend on the food that is to be cooked and the result desired. If the wrong method is employed, there will be a waste of food material or the food will be rendered less desirable in flavor or tenderness. For example, it would be both wasteful and undesirable to roast a tough old fowl or to boil a tender young broiler.
  28. Cooking with dry heat includes broiling, pan broiling, roasting, and baking; but, whichever of these processes is used, the principle is practically the same. In these processes the food is cooked by being exposed to the source of heat or by being placed in a closed oven and subjected to heated air. When dry heat is applied, the food to be cooked is heated to a much greater temperature than when moist heat is used.
  29. BROILING.--The cooking process known as broiling consists in exposing directly to the source of heat the food that is to be cooked; that is, in cooking it over or before a clear bed of coals or a gas flame. The aim in broiling is to retain the juices of food and develop flavor. As it is a quick method, foods that are not tender, as, for example, tough meats, should not be broiled, because broiling does not help to render their fibers more tender. In applying this cooking process, which is particularly suitable for tender portions of meat and for young fowl, the food should be exposed to intense heat at first in order to sear all surfaces quickly and thus retain the juices. At the beginning of the cooking, the article that is being broiled should be turned often; then, as soon as the outside is browned, the heat should be reduced if possible, as with a gas stove, and the article allowed to cook until done. If the broiling is done over coals, it is necessary to continue the turning during the entire process. While broiling produces an especially good flavor in the foods to which it is applied, provided they are not tough, it is not the most economical way of cooking.
  30. PAN BROILING.--Pan broiling is an adaptation of the broiling method.
  31. ROASTING.--Originally, the term to roast meant to cook before a fire, because, before the time of stoves, practically all food was cooked in the fireplace. Food that was to be roasted was placed before the fire in a device that reflected heat, this device being open on the side toward the fire and closed on that toward the room. The roast was suspended in this device, slowly turned, and thus cooked by radiant heat--that is, heat given off in the form of direct rays--the principle being the same as that of broiling, but the application different. Nowadays, the term roasting is almost universally applied to the action of both hot air and radiant heat. However, much of what is called roasting is in reality baking. Foods cooked in the oven of an ordinary coal or gas range are really baked, although they are said to be roasted, and a covered roasting pan is a misnomer. Food must be exposed to the air in the process of cooking if it is to be roasted in the true sense.
  32. BAKING.--By baking is meant cooking in a heated oven at temperatures ranging from 300 to 500 degrees Fahrenheit. As the term baking is frequently used in a wrong sense, the actual conditions of the process should be thoroughly understood. In both broiling and the original method of roasting, the heat is applied directly; that is, the food is exposed directly to the source of heat. Actual baking differs from these processes in that it is done in a closed oven or by means of heated air. Starchy foods, such as bread, cakes, and pastry, are nearly always baked, and gradually other foods, such as meats, fish, and vegetables are being subjected to this method of cooking. In fact, persons who are skilled in cooking use the oven more and more for things that they formerly thought had to be cooked in other ways. But the name that is applied to the process depends somewhat on custom, for while meat that is cooked in the oven is really baked, it is usually termed roasted meat. It seems strange, but it is nevertheless true, that ham cooked in the oven has always been termed baked, while turkey cooked in exactly the same way is said to be roasted.
  33. The methods of cooking with moist heat, that is, through the medium of water, are boiling, simmering, steaming, dry steaming, and braizing.
  34. FUNCTION OF WATER IN THE BODY.--Water supplies no energy to the body, but it plays a very important part in nutrition. In fact, its particular function in the body is to act as a solvent and a carrier of nutritive material and waste. In doing this work, it keeps the liquids of the body properly diluted, increases the flow of the digestive juices, and helps to carry off waste material. However, its ability to perform these necessary functions in the right way depends on its quality and its safety.
  35. KINDS OF WATER.--Water is either hard or soft. As it falls from the clouds, it is pure and soft until it comes in contact with gases and solids, which are dissolved by it and change its character. It is definitely known that the last of the water that falls in a shower is much better than the first, as the first cleanses not only the air, but the roofs and other things with which it comes in contact. In passing through certain kinds of soil or over rocks, water dissolves some of the minerals that are contained there and is thus changed from soft to hard water. If sewage drains into a well or water supply, the water is liable to contain bacteria, which will render it unfit and unsafe for drinking until it is sterilized by boiling. Besides rain water and distilled water, there is none that is entirely soft; all other waters hold certain salts in solution to a greater or less degree.
  36. USES OF WATER IN COOKING.--It is the solvent, or dissolving, power of water that makes this liquid valuable in cooking, but of the two kinds, soft water is preferable to hard, because it possesses greater solvent power. This is due to the fact that hard water has already dissolved a certain amount of material and will therefore dissolve less of the food substances and flavors when it is used for cooking purposes than soft water, which has dissolved nothing. It is known, too, that the flavor of such beverages as tea and coffee is often greatly impaired by the use of hard water. Dried beans and peas, cereals, and tough cuts of meat will not cook tender so readily in hard water as in soft, but the addition of a small amount of soda during the cooking of these foods will assist in softening them.
  37. BOILING.--As applied to cooking, boiling means cooking foods in boiling water. Water boils when its temperature is raised by heat to what is commonly termed its boiling point. This varies with the atmospheric pressure, but at sea level, under ordinary conditions, it is always 212 degrees Fahrenheit. When the atmospheric pressure on the surface of the water is lessened, boiling takes place at a lower temperature than that mentioned, and in extremely high altitudes the boiling point is so lowered that to cook certain foods by means of boiling water is difficult. As the water heats in the process of boiling, tiny bubbles appear on the bottom of the vessel in which it is contained and rise to the surface. Then, gradually, the bubbles increase in size until large ones form, rise rapidly, and break, thus producing constant agitation of the water.
  38. Boiling has various effects on foods. It toughens the albumin in eggs, toughens the fiber and dissolves the connective tissues in meat, softens the cellulose in cereals, vegetables, and fruits, and dissolves other substances in many foods. A good point to bear in mind in preparing foods by boiling is that slowly boiling water has the same temperature as rapidly boiling water and is therefore able to do exactly the same work. Keeping the gas burning full heat or running the fire hard to keep the water boiling rapidly is therefore unnecessary; besides, it wastes fuel without doing the work any faster and sometimes not so well. However, there are several factors that influence the rapidity with which water may be brought to the boiling point; namely, the kind of utensil used, the amount of surface exposed, and the quantity of heat applied. A cover placed on a saucepan or a kettle in which food is to be boiled retains the heat, and thus causes the temperature to rise more quickly; besides, a cover so used prevents a loss of water by condensing the steam as it rises against the cover. As water boils, some of it constantly passes off in the form of steam, and for this reason sirups or sauces become thicker the longer they are cooked. The evaporation takes place all over the surface of the water; consequently, the greater the surface exposed, the more quickly is the quantity of water decreased during boiling. Another point to observe in the boiling process is that foods boiled rapidly in water have a tendency to lose their shape and are reduced to small pieces if allowed to boil long enough.
  39. SIMMERING, OR STEWING.--The cooking process known as simmering, or stewing, is a modification of boiling. By this method, food is cooked in water at a temperature below the boiling point, or anywhere from 185 to 200 degrees Fahrenheit. Water at the simmering point always moves gently--never rapidly as it does in boiling. Less heat and consequently less fuel are required to cook foods in this way, unless, of course, the time consumed in cooking the food at a low temperature is much greater than that consumed in cooking it more rapidly.
  40. STEAMING.--As its name implies, steaming is the cooking of food by the application of steam. In this cooking process, the food is put into a steamer, which is a cooking utensil that consists of a vessel with a perforated bottom placed over one containing water. As the water boils, steam rises and cooks the food in the upper, or perforated, vessel. Steamers are sometimes arranged with a number of perforated vessels, one on top of the other. Such a steamer permits of the cooking of several foods at the same time without the need of additional fuel, because a different food may be placed in each vessel.
  41. DRY STEAMING.--Cooking foods in a vessel that is suspended in another one containing boiling water constitutes the cooking method known as dry steaming. The double boiler is a cooking utensil devised especially for carrying on this process. The food placed in the suspended, or inner, vessel does not reach the boiling point, but is cooked by the transfer of heat from the water in the outside, or lower, vessel. A decided advantage of this method is that no watching is required except to see that the water in the lower vessel does not boil away completely, for as long as there is water between the food and the fire, the food will neither boil nor burn.
  42. BRAIZING.--Cooking meat in an oven in a closed pan with a small quantity of water constitutes braizing. This cooking process might be called a combination of stewing and baking, but when it is properly carried out, the meat is placed on a rack so as to be raised above the water, in which may be placed sliced vegetables. In this process the meat actually cooks in the flavored steam that surrounds it in the hot pan. The so-called double roasting pans are in fact braizing pans when they are properly used. A pot roast is the result of a modification of the braizing method.
  43. Of the three mediums of conveying heat to food, namely, hot air, hot water, and hot fat, that of hot fat renders food the least digestible.
  44. FRYING.--By frying is meant the cooking of food in deep fat at a temperature of 350 to 400 degrees Fahrenheit. Any kind of fat that will not impart flavor to the food may be used for frying, but the vegetable oils, such as cottonseed oils, combinations of coconut and cottonseed oils, and nut oils, are preferable to lards and other animal fats, because they do not burn so easily. Foods cooked in deep fat will not absorb the fat nor become greasy if they are properly prepared, quickly fried, and well drained on paper that will absorb any extra fat.
  45. SAUTÉING.--Browning food first on one side and then on the other in a small quantity of fat is termed sautéing. In this cooking process, the fat is placed in a shallow pan, and when it is sufficiently hot, the food is put into it. Foods that are to be sautéd are usually sliced thin or cut into small pieces, and they are turned frequently during the process of cooking. All foods prepared in this way are difficult to digest, because they become more or less hard and soaked with fat. Chops and thin cuts of meat, which are intended to be pan-broiled, are really sautéd if they are allowed to cook in the fat that fries out of them.
  46. FRICASSEEING.--A combination of sautéing and stewing results in the cooking process known as fricasseeing. This process is used in preparing such foods as chicken, veal, or game, but it is more frequently employed for cooking fowl, which, in cookery, is the term used to distinguish the old of domestic fowls from chickens or pullets. In fricasseeing, the meat to be cooked is cut into pieces and sautéd either before or after stewing; then it is served with a white or a brown sauce. Ordinarily, the meat should be browned first, unless it is very tough, in order to retain the juices and improve the flavor. However, very old fowl or tough meat should be stewed first and then browned.
  47. Inasmuch as heat is so important a factor in the cooking of foods, it is absolutely necessary that the person who is to prepare them be thoroughly familiar with the ways in which this heat is produced. The production of heat for cooking involves the use of fuels and stoves in which to burn them, as well as electricity, which serves the purpose of a fuel, and apparatus for using electricity. In order, therefore, that the best results may be obtained in cookery, these subjects are here taken up in detail.
  48. Probably the first fuel to be used in the production of heat for cooking was wood, but later such fuels as peat, coal, charcoal, coke, and kerosene came into use. Of these fuels, coal, gas, and kerosene are used to the greatest extent in the United States. Wood, of course, is used considerably for kindling fires, and it serves as fuel in localities where it is abundant or less difficult to procure than other fuels. However, it is fast becoming too scarce and too expensive to burn. If it must be burned for cooking purposes, those who use it should remember that dry, hard wood gives off heat at a more even rate than soft wood, which is usually selected for kindling. Electricity is coming into favor for supplying heat for cooking, but only when it can be sold as cheaply as gas will its use in the home become general.
  49. The selection of a stove to be used for cooking depends on the fuel that is to be used, and the fuel, in turn, depends on the locality in which a person lives. However, as the fuel that is the most convenient and easily obtained is usually the cheapest, it is the one to be selected, for the cost of the cooked dish may be greatly increased by the use of fuel that is too expensive. In cooking, every fuel should be made to do its maximum amount of work, because waste of fuel also adds materially to the cost of cooking and, besides, it often causes great inconvenience. For example, cooking on a red-hot stove with a fire that, instead of being held in the oven and the lids, overheats the kitchen and burns out the stove not only wastes fuel and material, but also taxes the temper of the person who is doing the work. From what has just been said, it will readily be seen that a knowledge of fuels and apparatus for producing heat will assist materially in the economical production of food, provided, of course, it is applied to the best advantage.
  50. VARIETIES OF COAL.--Possibly the most common fuel used for cooking is coal. This fuel comes in two varieties, namely, anthracite, or
  51. SIZES OF COAL.--As the effect of coal on the stove must be taken into consideration in the buying of fuel, so the different sizes of hard coal must be known before the right kind can be selected. The sizes known as stove and egg coal, which range from about 1-3/8 to 2-3/4 inches in diameter, are intended for a furnace and should not be used in the kitchen stove for cooking purposes. Some persons who know how to use the size of coal known as pea, which is about 1/2 to 3/4 inch in diameter, like that kind, whereas others prefer the size called chestnut, which is about 3/4 inch to 1-3/8 inches in diameter. In reality, a mixture of these two, if properly used, makes the best and most easily regulated kitchen coal fire.
  52. QUALITY OF COAL.--In addition to knowing the names, prices, and uses of the different kinds of coal, the housewife should be able to distinguish poor coal from good coal. In fact, proper care should be exercised in all purchasing, for the person who understands the quality of the thing to be purchased will be more likely to get full value for the money paid than the one who does not. About coal, it should be understood that good hard coal has a glossy black color and a bright surface, whereas poor coal contains slaty pieces. The quality of coal can also be determined from the ash that remains after it is burned. Large chunks or great quantities of ash indicate a poor quality of coal, and fine, powdery ash a good quality. Of course, even if the coal is of the right kind, poor results are often brought about by the bad management of a fire, whether in a furnace or a stove. Large manufacturing companies, whose business depends considerably on the proper kind of fuel, buy coal by the heat units--that is, according to the quantity of heat it will give off--and at some future time this plan may have to be followed in the private home, unless some other fuel is provided in the meantime.
  53. COKE.--Another fuel that is sometimes used for cooking is coke.
  54. VALUE OF GAS AS FUEL.--As a fuel for cooking purposes, gas, both
  55. MEASUREMENT OF GAS.--Gas is measured by the cubic foot, and a definite price is charged for each 1,000 cubic feet. To determine the quantity used, it is passed through what is called a meter, which measures as the gas burns. It is important that each housewife be able to read the amount registered by the meter, so that she can compare her gas bill with the meter reading and thus determine whether the charges are correct. If only the usual amount of gas has been consumed and the bill does not seem to be correct or is much larger than it has been previously, the matter should be reported to the proper authorities, for the meter may be out of order and in need of repair.
  56. READING A GAS METER.--To register the quantity of gas that is consumed, a gas meter, as is shown in Fig. 1, is provided with three large dials, each of which has ten spaces over which the hand, or indicator, passes to indicate the amount of gas consumed, and with one small dial, around which the hand makes one revolution every time 2 cubic feet of gas is consumed. This small dial serves to tell whether gas is leaking when the stoves and lights are not turned on. Above each large dial is an arrow that points out the direction in which to read, the two outside ones reading toward the right and the center one toward the left; also, above each dial is lettered the quantity of gas that each dial registers, that at the right registering 1,000 cubic feet, that in the center 10,000 cubic feet, and that at the left 100,000 cubic feet. To read the dials, begin at the left, or the 100,000 dial, and read toward the right. In each instance, read the number over which the hand has passed last. For instance, when, as in Fig. 1, the hand lies between 5 and 6 on the left dial, 5 is read; on the center dial, when the hand lies between 5 and 6, 5 is read also; and on the right dial, when the hand lies between 2 and 3, the 2, which is really 200, is read.
  57. To compute the quantity of gas used, the dials are read from left to right and the three readings are added. Then, in order to determine the quantity burned since the previous reading, the amount registered at that time, which is always stated on the gas bill, must be subtracted from the new reading.
  58. PREPAYMENT METERS.--In many places, gas concerns install what are called prepayment meters; that is, meters in which the money is deposited before the gas is burned. Such meters register the consumption of the gas in the same way as the meters just mentioned, but they contain a receptacle for money. A coin, generally a quarter, is dropped into a slot leading to this receptacle, and the amount of gas sold for this sum is then permitted to pass through as it is needed. When this amount of gas has been burned, another coin must be inserted in the meter before more gas will be liberated.
  59. In communities where gas is not available, kerosene, which is produced by the refinement of petroleum, is used extensively as a fuel for cooking, especially in hot weather when the use of a coal or a wood stove adds materially to the discomfort of the person who does the cooking. Kerosene is burned in stoves especially designed for its use, and while it is a cheap fuel it is not always the same in quality. It contains water at all times, but sometimes the proportion of water is greater than at others. The greater the amount of water, the less fuel will be contained in each gallon of kerosene. The quality of kerosene can be determined by checking up the length of time the stove will burn on a specified quantity of each new purchase of it.
  60. The use of electricity for supplying heat for cooking is very popular in some homes, especially those which are properly wired, because of its convenience and cleanliness and the fact that the heat it produces can be applied direct. The first electrical cooking apparatus was introduced at the time of the World's Fair in Chicago, in 1892, and since that time rapid advancement has been made in the production of suitable apparatus for cooking electrically. Electricity would undoubtedly be in more general use today if it were possible to store it in the same way as artificial gas, but as yet no such method has been devised and its cost is therefore greater. Electricity is generated in large power plants, and as it is consumed in the home for lighting and cooking it passes through a meter, which indicates the quantity used in much the same manner as a gas meter. It will be well, therefore, to understand the way in which an electric meter is read, so that the bills for electricity can be checked.
  61. READING AN ELECTRIC METER.--An electric meter, which is similar in appearance to a gas meter, consists of three or four dials, which are placed side by side or in the shape of an arc. In the usual type, which is shown in Fig. 2 and which consists of four dials placed side by side, each one of the dials contains ten spaces and a hand, or indicator, that passes over numbers ranging from to 9 to show the amount of electricity used.
  62. Before stoves for cooking came into use in the home, food was cooked in open fireplaces. Even when wood was the only fuel known, a stove for burning it, called the Franklin stove, was invented by Benjamin Franklin, but not until coal came into use as fuel were iron stoves made. For a long time stoves were used mainly for heating purposes, as many housewives preferred to cook at the open fireplace. However, this method of cooking has practically disappeared and a stove of some kind is in use for cooking in every home.
  63. For each fuel in common use there are many specially constructed stoves, each having some advantageous feature; yet all stoves constructed for the same fuel are practically the same in principle. In order that fuel will burn and produce heat, it must have air, because fuel, whether it is wood, coal, or gas, is composed largely of carbon and air largely of oxygen, and it is the rapid union of these two chemical elements that produces heat. Therefore, in order that each stove may work properly, some way in which to furnish air for the fire in the firebox must be provided. For this reason, every stove for cooking contains passageways for air and is connected with a chimney, which contains a flue, or passage, that leads to the outer air. When the air in a stove becomes heated, it rises, and as it ascends cold air rushes through the passageways of the stove to take its place. It is the flue, however, that permits of the necessary draft and carries off unburned gases. At times it is necessary to regulate the amount of air that enters, and in order that this may be done each stove is provided with dampers. These devices are located in the air passages and they are so designed as to close off the air or allow the desired amount to enter. By means of these dampers it is possible also to force the heat around the stove oven, against the top of the stove, or up the chimney flue. A knowledge of the ways in which to manipulate these dampers is absolutely necessary if correct results are to be obtained from a stove. The flue, however, should receive due consideration. If a stove is to give its best service, the flue, in addition to being well constructed, should be free from obstructions and kept in good condition. Indeed, the stove is often blamed for doing unsatisfactory work when the fault is really with the flue.
  64. Probably one of the most important things considered in the construction of stoves is the economizing of fuel, for ever since the days of the fireplace there has been more or less of a tendency to save fuel for cooking, and as the various kinds grow scarcer, and consequently more expensive, the economical use of fuel becomes a necessity. While most stoves for cooking purposes are so constructed as to save fuel, many of them do not, especially if the method of caring for them is not understood. Any housewife, however, can economize in the use of fuel if she will learn how the stove she has must be operated; and this can be done by following closely the directions that come with the stove when it is purchased. Such directions are the best to follow, because they have been worked out by the manufacturer, who understands the right way in which his product should be operated.
  65. GENERAL CONSTRUCTION.--In Fig. 3 is illustrated the general construction of the type of coal stove used for cooking. The principal parts of such a stove, which is commonly referred to as a cook stove, or range, are the firebox a; the grate b; the ash pit c, which usually contains an ash-pan d; the oven e; the dampers f, g, h, and i; the flue opening j and flue k; openings in the top and suitable lids, not shown, for kettles and pans; and the air space extending from the firebox around three sides of the oven, as shown by the arrows. To prevent the stove from wearing out rapidly, the firebox, in which the fuel is burned, is lined with a material, such as fireclay, that will withstand great heat. The fire in the firebox is supported by the grate, which is in the form of metal teeth or bars, so as to permit air to pass through the fuel from underneath. The grate is usually so constructed that when the fire is raked it permits burnt coal or ashes to fall into the ash-pan, by means of which they can be readily removed from the stove. The oven, which lies directly back of the firebox and is really an enclosed chamber in which food may be cooked, receives its heat from the hot air that passes around it. The dampers are devices that control the flow of air in and out of the stove. Those shown at f and g serve to admit fresh air into the stove or to keep it out, and those shown at h and i serve to keep heated air in the stove or to permit it to pass out through the flue.
  66. Building a Coal Fire.--To build a coal fire is a simple matter. So that the draft will be right for rapid combustion, it is first necessary to close the dampers f and h _and to open the bottom damper _g and the chimney damper i. With these dampers arranged, place crushed paper or shavings on the grate; then on top of the paper or shavings place kindling, and on top of the kindling put a small quantity of coal. Be careful to place the fuel on the grate loosely enough to permit currents of air to pass through it, because it will not burn readily if it is closely packed. Light the fire by inserting a flame from below. When this is done, the flame will rise and ignite the kindling, and this, in turn, will cause the coal to take fire. When the fire is burning well, close the dampers g and i so that the fuel will not burn too rapidly and the heat will surround the oven instead of passing up the chimney; also, before too much of the first supply of coal is burned out, add a new supply, but be sure that the coal is sufficiently ignited before the new supply is added so as not to smother the fire. If only a thin layer is added each time, this danger will be removed. Experience has proved that the best results are secured if the fire is built only 4 inches high. When hot coals come near the top of the stove, the lids are likely to warp and crack from the heat and the cooking will not be done any more effectively. Another thing to avoid in connection with a fire is the accumulation of ashes. The ash-pan should be kept as nearly empty as possible, for a full ash-pan will check the draft and cause the grate in the firebox to burn out.
  67. ADJUSTING THE DAMPERS.--To get the best results from a cook stove, and at the same time overcome the wasting of fuel, the ways in which to adjust the dampers should be fully known. If it is desired to heat the oven for baking, close dampers f and i and open dampers g and h. With the dampers so arranged, the heated air above the fire is forced around the oven and up the flue, as is clearly shown by the arrows in Fig. 3. A study of this diagram will readily show that the lower left-hand corner of the oven is its coolest part, since the heated air does not reach this place directly, and that the top center is the hottest part, because the hottest air passes directly over this portion of the oven and the heated air in the oven rises to it.
  68. BANKING A COAL FIRE.--To economize in the use of fuel, as well as to save the labor involved in building a new fire, it is advisable to keep a fire burning low from one meal to another and from one day to the next. As the nature of hard coal is such that it will hold fire for a long time, this can be done by what is called banking the fire. To achieve this, after the fire has served to cook a meal, shake the ashes out of the grate so that the glowing coals are left. Then put fresh coal on this bed of coals, and, with the dampers arranged as for building a new fire, allow the coal to burn well for a short time. Finally, cover the fire with a layer of fine coal and adjust the dampers properly; that is, close dampers g and h and open dampers f and i. If the banking is carefully done the fire should last 8 or 10 hours without further attention. Care should be taken, however, to use sufficient coal in banking the fire, so that when it is to be used again the coal will not be completely burned, but enough burning coals will remain to ignite a fresh supply. When the fire is to be used again, rake it slightly, put a thin layer of coal over the top, and arrange the dampers as for starting a fire. As soon as this layer of coal has begun to burn, add more until the fire is in good condition.
  69. GAS RANGES.--A gas stove for cooking, or gas range, as it is frequently called, consists of an oven, a broiler, and several burners over which are plates to hold pans, pots, and kettles in which food is to be cooked. As is true of a coal range, a gas range also requires a flue to carry off the products of unburned gas. Gas stoves, or ranges, are of many makes, but in principle all of them are practically the same; in fact, the chief difference lies in the location or arrangement of the oven, broiler, and burners. In Fig. 5 is illustrated a simple type of gas range. The oven a of this stove is located above the top of the stove, instead of below it, as in some stoves. An oven so located is of advantage in that it saves stooping or bending over. The door of this oven contains a glass, which makes it possible to observe the food baking inside without opening the door and thereby losing heat. The broiler b, which may also be used as a toaster, is located directly beneath the oven, and to the right are the burners c for cooking. The gas for these parts is contained in the pipe d, which is connected to a pipe joined to the gas main in the street. To get heat for cooking it is simply necessary to turn on the stop-cocks and light the gas. The four burners are controlled by the stop-cocks e, and the oven and the broiler by the stop-cock f. The stove is also equipped with a simmering burner for the slow methods of cooking on top of the stove, gas to this burner being controlled by the stop-cock g. To catch anything that may be spilled in cooking, there is a removable metal or enamel sheet h. Such a sheet is a great advantage, as it aids considerably in keeping the stove clean.
  70. Some gas stoves are provided with a pilot, which is a tiny flame of gas that is controlled by a button on the gas pipe to which the stop-cocks are attached. The pilot is kept lighted, and when it is desired to light a burner, pressing the button causes the flame to shoot near enough to each burner to ignite the gas. However, whether the burners are lighted in this way or by applying a lighted match, they should never be lighted until heat is required; likewise, in order to save gas, they should be turned off as soon as the cooking is completed.
  71. FIRELESS-COOKING GAS STOVES.--A style of gas stove that meets with favor in many homes is the so-called fireless-cooking gas stove, one style of which is shown in Fig. 7. Such a stove has the combined advantages of a fireless cooker, which is explained later, and a gas stove, for it permits of quick cooking with direct heat, as well as slow cooking with heat that is retained in an insulated chamber, that is, one that is sufficiently covered to prevent heat from escaping. In construction, this type of stove is similar to any other gas stove, except that its oven is insulated and it is provided with one or more compartments for fireless cooking, as at a and b. Each of these compartments is so arranged that it may be moved up and down on an upright rod, near the base of which, resting on a solid plate c, is a gas burner d, over which the insulated hood of the compartment fits. When it is desired to cook food in one of these compartments, the hood is raised, as at b, and the gas burner is lighted. The food in the cooker is allowed to cook over the lighted burner until sufficient heat has been retained or the process has been carried sufficiently far to permit the cooking to continue without fire. Then the insulated hood is lowered until the compartment is in the position of the one shown at a. It is not necessary to turn off the gas, as this is done automatically when the hood is lowered.
  72. As has been mentioned, kerosene is used considerably as a fuel in localities where gas cannot be obtained. Kerosene stoves are not unlike gas stoves, but, as a rule, instead of having built-in ovens, they are provided with portable ovens, which are heated by placing them on top of the stove, over the burners. Such stoves are of two types, those in which cotton wicks are used, as in oil lamps, and those which are wickless, the former being generally considered more convenient and satisfactory than the latter. In Fig. 8 is shown a three-burner kerosene stove of the first type mentioned. Oil for the burners, or lamps, a is stored in the container b, which may be of glass or metal, and it is supplied to the reservoir of each burner by the pipe c. Each burner is provided with a door d, which is opened when it is desired to light the wick. The flame of each burner is controlled by the screw e, which serves to raise or lower the wick, and the heat passes up to the opening f in the top of the stove through the cylindrical pipe above the burner. The arrangement of a wickless kerosene stove is much the same as the one just described, but it is so constructed that the oil, which is also stored in a tank at the side, flows into what is called a burner bowl and burns from this bowl up through a perforated chimney, the quantity of oil used being regulated by a valve attached to each bowl.
  73. The burners of kerosene stoves are lighted by applying a match, just as the burners of a gas stove are lighted. In some stoves, especially those of the wickless type, the burners are so constructed that the flame can rise to only a certain height. This is a good feature, as it prevents the flame from gradually creeping up and smoking, a common occurrence in an oil stove. The kerosene-stove flame that gives the most heat, consumes the least fuel, and produces the least soot and odor is blue in color. A yellow flame, which is given off in some stoves, produces more or less soot and consequently makes it harder to keep the stove clean. Glass containers are better than metal containers, because the water that is always present in small quantities in kerosene is apt to rust the metal container and cause it to leak. To prevent the accumulation of dirt, as well as the disagreeable odor usually present when an oil stove is used, the burners should be removed frequently and boiled in a solution of washing soda; also, if a wick is used, the charred portion should be rubbed from it, but not cut, as cutting is liable to make it give off an uneven flame.
  74. ELECTRIC STOVES. Electric stoves for cooking have been perfected to such an extent that they are a great convenience, and in places where the cost of electricity does not greatly exceed that of gas they are used considerably. In appearance, electric stoves are very similar to gas stoves, as is shown in Fig. 9, which illustrates an electric stove of the usual type. The oven a is located at one side and contains a broiler pan b. On top of this stove are openings for cooking, into which fit lids c that have the appearance of ordinary stove lids, but are in reality electrical heating units, called hotplates. Heat for cooking is supplied by a current of electricity that passes through the hotplates, as well as through similar devices in the oven, the stove being connected to the supply of electricity at the connection-box d, which is here shown with the cover removed. The heat of the different hotplates and the oven is controlled by several switches e at the front of the stove. Each of these switches provides three degrees of heat--high, medium, and low--and just the amount of heat required for cooking can be supplied by turning the switch to the right point. Below the switches are several fuse plugs f that contain the fuses, which are devices used in electrical apparatus to avoid injury to it in case the current of electricity becomes too great.
  75. SMALL ELECTRIC UTENSILS.--In addition to electric stoves, there are a number of smaller electrical cooking utensils that can be attached to an electric-light socket or a wall socket. Among these are percolators, toasters, hotplates, or grills, chafing dishes, egg poachers, and similar devices. An idea of such utensils for cooking may be formed by referring to Fig. 10, which shows an electric toaster, and Fig. 11, which shows a hotplate, or grill. The toaster is arranged so that bread to be toasted may be placed on each side, as well as on top, of an upright part that gives off heat when the current of electricity is turned on. The grill is so constructed that a pan for cooking may be placed under and on top of the part that gives off heat.
  75. In the United States, pearl barley is the name applied to the most common form of barley used as food. In this form, the layer of bran is removed from the outside of the barley grain, but no change is made in the grain itself. Pearl barley is used for soups and as a breakfast cereal, but for whatever purpose it is employed it requires very long cooking to make it palatable. Very often the water in which a small amount of pearl barley has been cooked for a long time is used to dilute the milk given to a child who has indigestion or who is not able to take whole milk.
  76. PEARL BARLEY.--As a breakfast cereal, possibly the only satisfactory way in which to prepare pearl barley is to cook it in a double boiler, although after it is cooked in this way it may, of course, be used to prepare other breakfast dishes. Barley is not liked by everybody; nevertheless, it is an excellent food and its nature is such that even after long cooking it remains so firm as to require thorough mastication, which is the first great step in the digestion of starchy foods.
  77. PEARL BARLEY WITH FRUIT.--Cooked barley does not contain very much flavor. Therefore, if a more tasty dish is desired, it is usually necessary to add something, such as fruit, that will improve the flavor. Various fruits may be used with barley, as is shown in the accompanying recipe.
  78. LEFT-OVER BARLEY.--Cooked barley that is left over from a meal should not be wasted. That which has been cooked without fruit may be added to meat stock or used with vegetables for soup. Also, cooked barley that has had time to set and become stiff may be sautéd in butter until it is slightly brown. When served with meat gravy, barley prepared in this manner makes a very appetizing and satisfying luncheon dish.
  79. RYE is a grain that grows very much like wheat, but it can be cultivated in poorer soil and colder climates than this cereal. It is not used alone to any great extent for anything except the making of bread, but it is particularly well adapted for this purpose, since it contains a large amount of gluten, the food substance necessary for successful bread making, and, like wheat, will make yeast bread when used alone. Bread made of rye flour has a dark color and a peculiar flavor, and while these characteristics make it unpopular with some persons it is used extensively by certain classes, especially persons from foreign countries. Besides its use for bread, rye is frequently combined with other cereals in the manufacture of ready-to-eat cereal foods.
  80. BUCKWHEAT is used less extensively than any of the other cereals already mentioned, but it has an advantage over them in that it thrives in soil that is too poor for any other crop. The buckwheat plant grows to a height of about 2 feet and blossoms with a white flower. Its seeds, which are three-cornered in shape, bear a close resemblance to beechnuts, and because of this peculiar similarity, this cereal was originally called beech wheat. Practically the only use to which buckwheat is put is to grind it into very fine flour for griddle cakes, recipes for which are given in another Section.
  81. MILLET as a cereal food finds practically no use in the United
  82. All the cereals that have been discussed up to this point require cooking; but there are many varieties of cereal food on the market that are ready to eat and therefore need no further preparation. Chief among these are the cereal foods known as flakes. These are first made by cooking the grain, then rolling it between rollers, and finally toasting it. The grains that are treated in this way for the preparation of flake foods are wheat, corn, rye, and rice. It is well to remember this fact, because the trade name does not always indicate the kind of grain that has been used to make the food. In another form in which cereals, principally wheat, appear on the market, they are cooked, shredded, pressed into biscuits, and then toasted. Again, cereals are made into loaves with the use of yeast, like bread, and after being thoroughly baked, are ground into small pieces. Wheat generally forms the basis of these preparations, and to it are added such other grains as rye and barley.
  83. The toasting of cereals improves their flavor very materially and at the same time increases their digestibility. In fact, cereals that have been subjected to this process are said to be predigested, because the starch granules that have been browned in the toasting are changed into dextrine, and this is one of the stages through which they must pass in their process of digestion in the body. However, the housewife should not allow herself to be influenced unduly by what is said about all prepared cereals, because the manufacturer, who has depended largely on advertising for the sale of his product, sometimes becomes slightly overzealous and makes statements that will bear questioning. For instance, some of these foods are claimed to be muscle builders, but every one should remember that, with the exception of rye and wheat, which build up the tissues to a certain extent, the cereals strengthen the muscles in only a slight degree. Others of these foods are said to be nerve and brain foods, but it should be borne in mind that no food acts directly on the nerves or the brain. In reality, only those foods which keep the body mentally and physically in good condition have an effect on the nerves and the brain, and this at best is an indirect effect.
  84. Although, as is shown by the recipes that have been given, cereals may have a place in practically all meals that the housewife is called on to prepare, they are used more frequently for breakfast than for any other meal. When a cereal forms a part of this meal, it should, as a rule, be served immediately after the fruit, provided the breakfast is served in courses. Many persons, of course, like fresh fruit served with cooked or dry cereal, and, in such an event, the fruit and cereal courses should be combined. A banana sliced over flakes or a few spoonfuls of berries or sliced peaches placed on top afford a pleasing change from the usual method of serving cereals. Another way in which to lend variety to the cereal and at the same time add nourishment to the diet is to serve a poached egg on top of the shredded-wheat biscuit or in a nest of corn flakes, especially if they have been previously heated. In fact, any of the dry cereals become more appetizing if they are heated thoroughly in a slow oven and then allowed to cool, as this process freshens them by driving off the moisture that they absorb and that makes them tough.
  85. In addition to the cereals that have already been discussed, macaroni and foods of a similar nature are entitled to a place in this
  86. To produce the Italian pastes, the wheat, from which the bran has been removed, is ground into flour. This flour is made into a stiff dough, which is rolled into sheets and forced over rods, usually of metal, or made into a mass and forced over rods, and allowed to dry in the air. When sufficiently dry, the rods are removed, leaving slender tubes, or sticks, that have holes through the center. Because of the manufacturing processes involved in the production of these foods for market, they are higher in price than some cereals, but their value lies in the fact that they are practically imperishable and are easily prepared and digested.
  87. Italian pastes are of several varieties, chief among which are
  88. Since the Italian pastes are made from wheat, their food substances are similar to those of wheat. As in other wheat products, protein is found in them in the form of gluten, but, owing to the variety of wheat used for them, it occurs in greater proportion in these foods than in most wheat products. In fact, the Italian pastes are so high in protein, or tissue-building material, that they very readily take the place of meat. Unlike meat, however, they contain carbohydrates in the form of wheat starch. They do not contain much fat or mineral salts, though, being lower in these food substances than many of the other foods made from wheat.
  89. In nearly all recipes for macaroni, spaghetti, and vermicelli, as well as the numerous varieties of these foods, the first steps in their preparation for the table are practically the same, for all of these foods must be cooked to a certain point and in a certain way before they can be used in the numerous ways possible to prepare them. Therefore, in order that success may be met in the preparation of the dishes that are made from these foods, these underlying principles should be thoroughly understood.
  90. MACARONI WITH CREAM SAUCE.--Possibly the simplest way in which to prepare macaroni is with cream sauce, as is explained in the accompanying recipe. Such a sauce not only increases the food value of any Italian paste, but improves its flavor. Macaroni prepared in this way may be used as the principal dish of a light meal, as it serves to take the place of meat.
  91. MACARONI WITH EGGS.--Since macaroni is high in protein, it takes the place of meat in whatever form it is served, but when it is prepared with eggs it becomes an unusually good meat substitute. Therefore, when eggs are added as in the following recipe, no meat should be served in the same meal.
  92. Macaroni With Tomato and Bacon.--Macaroni alone is somewhat tasteless, so that, as has been pointed out, something is usually added to give this food a more appetizing flavor. In the recipe here given, tomatoes and bacon are used for this purpose. Besides improving the flavor, the bacon supplies the macaroni with fat, a food substance in which it is low.
  93. Macaroni With Cheese.--Cheese is combined with macaroni probably more often than any other food. It supplies considerable flavor to the macaroni and at the same time provides fat and additional protein. The cooking operation is practically the same as that just given for macaroni with tomatoes and bacon.
  94. Macaroni With Cheese and Tomato.--Although the food combinations given are very satisfactory, a dish that is extremely appetizing to many persons may be made by combining both cheese and tomato with macaroni. Such a nutritious combination, which is illustrated in Fig. 5, can be used as the principal dish of a heavy meal.
  95. Macaroni Italian Style.--If small quantities of fried or boiled ham remain after a meal, they can be used with macaroni to make a very tasty dish known as macaroni Italian style. As ham is a highly seasoned meat, it improves the flavor of the macaroni and at the same time adds nutrition to the dish.
  96. MACARONI AND KIDNEY BEANS.--The combination of canned kidney beans and macaroni is a rather unusual one, but it makes a very appetizing dish, especially when canned tomatoes are added, as in the recipe here given.
  97. SPAGHETTI WITH CHEESE AND TOMATO SAUCE.--The accompanying recipe for spaghetti with cheese and tomato sauce will serve to illustrate that this form of Italian paste may be prepared in the same manner as macaroni; that is, to show how simple it is to substitute one kind of Italian paste for another. Any of these pastes, as has been mentioned, is especially appetizing when prepared with cheese and tomato.
  98. Left-Over Italian Pastes.--No cooked Italian paste of any kind should ever be wasted. Any left-over macaroni, spaghetti, or vermicelli can be reheated and served as it was originally or it can be used in soups. If a sufficient amount is left after a meal, a good plan is to utilize it in croquettes. To make such croquettes, chop the left-over food fine and hold it together with a thick white sauce or with raw eggs. Then form it into croquettes of the desired shape, roll these in bread or cracker crumbs, and brown them in butter.
  99. A well-planned breakfast menu is here given, with the intention that it be prepared and used. This menu, as will be observed, calls for at least one of the dishes that have been described, as well as some that have not. Directions for the latter, however, are given, so that no difficulty will be experienced in preparing the menu. After the recipes have been followed out carefully, it will be necessary to report on the success that is had with each dish and to send this report in with the answers to the Examination Questions at the end of this Section. The recipes are intended to serve six persons, but they may be changed if the family consists of fewer or more persons by merely regulating the amounts to suit the required number, as is explained elsewhere.

Converted from "8loc210.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
  1. As is well understood, milk is the liquid that is secreted by the mammary glands of female mammals for the nourishment of their young. The word milk as it is commonly used, however, refers to cow's milk, because such milk is employed to a greater extent as human food than the milk from any other animal. Cow's milk in its perfectly fresh raw state is a yellowish-white, opaque fluid, called whole milk, and, as is well known, possesses a distinctly sweet taste and characteristic odor. When such milk is allowed to stand for some time without being disturbed, it separates into two distinct layers, an upper and a lower one. The upper layer, which is lighter than the lower one and occupies a smaller space, consists largely of globules of fat and is called cream; the lower layer, which is white or bluish-white in color and is composed of water, solids, and protein, is, when separated from the cream, called skim milk.
  2. As an article of diet, milk is very important, because its sole function in nature is to serve as food. It is required by the infant; it is needed in the diet of all growing children; and it is desirable in the preparation of dishes for both young and old.
  3. So important is milk as an article of food that, outside of the purely rural districts, producing the milk supply is a business of considerable importance. This is due to the fact that the purity of milk must be constantly safeguarded in order that clean, safe milk may be provided for the countless numbers that depend on it. In fact, milk undoubtedly bears a closer relation to public health than any other food. To produce an adequate amount of clean, safe, pure milk is one of the food problems of the city and country alike. In the city much of the difficulty is overcome by the ordinances that provide standards of composition and cleanliness, as well as inspection to insure them; but such ordinances are rarely provided for in villages and country districts.
  4. With its various products, milk helps to form a very large part of the dietary in most homes, but while nothing can take the place of this food and while it is high in food value, there seems to be a general tendency to think of it as an addition to the bill of fare, rather than as a possible substitute for more expensive food. For instance, milk is very often served as a beverage in a meal in which the quantity of meat or other protein foods is not reduced. From an economical standpoint, as well as from the point of view of the needs of the body, this is really extravagant, for milk is itself largely a protein food. The serving of a glass of milk or of a dish that contains generous quantities of milk offers the housewife an opportunity to cut down considerably the allowance of meat and eggs. Because of this fact and because milk and its products may be used to add nutritive value to a food, to give variety, and to improve flavor, they deserve considerable study on the part of the housewife.
  5. Since milk may be used in such a variety of ways, it may be easily included in the dietary for the family. Being liquid in form, it may always be served without any preparation as a beverage or with other beverages, cereals, and fruits. It also has numerous other uses, being employed in the making of sauces for vegetables and meats, in the place of stock for soups, and as the liquid for bread, cakes, puddings, custards, and many frozen desserts. Because of its extensive use, every housewife not only should know how to buy milk and care for it, but should be familiar with its composition, so that she may determine whether or not it suits the needs of her family. In addition, she should know the effect of heat on milk and the various methods of preparation if she would be able to judge what food combinations can be used with milk.
  6. As milk is usually taken into the body in liquid form, the common tendency is to regard it as a beverage, rather than as an important source of nourishing food material. However, a knowledge of its composition, as well as the fact that milk becomes a solid food in the stomach and must then be dissolved in the process of digestion, will serve to show that milk contains solids. That it possesses all the elements required to sustain life and promote health is proved by the fact that a child may live for months on milk alone and during this time increase in weight.
  7. The solids contained in milk are proteins, fat, carbohydrate in the form of sugar, and mineral salts, besides which, of course, water occurs in large quantities. The sugar and fat of milk serve as fuel; the mineral salts are chiefly valuable for the growth of bones and teeth and for their effect on the liquids of the body; and the proteins, like the fat and sugar, serve as fuel, but they also make and repair the muscular tissues of the body.
  8. PROTEIN IN MILK.--Because of the double usefulness of protein--to serve as fuel and to make and repair muscular tissue--this element is regarded as an important ingredient of milk. The protein in milk is called casein. The opaque whiteness of milk is largely due to the presence of this substance. As long as milk remains sweet, the lime salts it contains hold this casein in solution; but when it sours, the salts are made soluble and the casein thickens, or coagulates. In addition to casein, milk contains a small amount of protein in the form of albumin. This substance, upon being heated, coagulates and causes the formation of the skin that is always found on the top of milk that has been heated. The skin thus formed contains everything that is found in milk, because, as it forms, casein is dried with it and sugar and fat, too, are caught and held there. It is the protein of milk and its characteristic coagulation that are made use of in the making of cheese. In cooking, the protein of milk is probably more affected than any of the other substances, but the degree to which the digestion of milk is thus affected is not definitely known, this being a much disputed question.
  9. FAT IN MILK.--The other substance in milk that serves as fuel, or to produce energy, is fat. It occurs in the form of tiny particles, each surrounded by a thin covering and suspended in the liquid. Such a mixture, which is called an emulsion, is the most easily digested form in which fat is found. The fat in milk varies more than the other food substances, it being sometimes as low as 2 per cent, and again as high as 6 per cent. However, the average of these two, or 4 per cent., is the usual amount found in most milk.
  10. CARBOHYDRATE IN MILK.--The carbohydrate contained in milk is in the form of sugar called lactose. It is unlike other sugars in that it is not very sweet and does not disagree with most persons nor upset their digestion. For this reason, it is often given to children, invalids, and persons who have digestive disturbances. However, it is like other carbohydrates in that in solution it ferments. The result of the fermentation in this case is the production of lactic acid, which makes the milk sour. With the fat, lactose makes up the bulk of the energy-producing material of milk, and while this is important it is only secondary when compared to the tissue-building power of the protein and minerals. Besides being an important part of milk itself, lactose is a valuable by-product in the manufacture of cheese. After being taken from whey, which is the clear, straw-colored liquid that remains when the curd, or coagulated portion, is completely removed from the milk, the lactose is refined and sold in the form of a powder that is used for various kinds of infant and invalid feeding.
  11. MINERAL MATTER IN MILK.--Considerable quantities of mineral salts, which are chiefly lime, potash, and phosphates, are found in milk.
  12. WATER IN MILK.--The percentage of water in milk is much greater than that of all the other food substances combined, there being more than six times as much. While this quantity seems very large, it is an advantage, for milk provides nourishment to persons when they can take neither solid nor more condensed food. On the other hand, the water is a disadvantage, for it is responsible for the rapid spoiling of milk. This fact is clearly shown in the case of condensed milk, where the water is partly or completely evaporated, for milk of this kind keeps much longer without spoiling than either whole or skim milk.
  13. Although milk is used extensively in its natural liquid form, considerable use is also made of the numerous products of milk, chief among which are cream, skim milk, buttermilk, sour milk, whey, butter, and cheese. In fact, all of these occupy such an important place in the dietary of the majority of homes that it is well for every housewife to understand their value. Butter and cheese are discussed in detail later, so that at this time no attention need be given to them. The other products, however, are taken up now, with the intention of enabling the housewife to familiarize herself with their production, nature, and use.
  14. CREAM.--As has been pointed out, the particles of fat that rise to the top of milk when it is allowed to remain undisturbed for some time form the product known as cream. Cream may be removed from the milk by skimming it off, or it may be separated from the milk by means of machinery especially designed for the purpose. The greater the proportion of fat in milk, the thicker, or "heavier," will be the cream.
  15. SKIM MILK.--After a part or all of the cream has been removed from whole milk, that which remains is called skim milk. While practically all of the fat is taken out when milk is skimmed, very little protein or sugar is removed. Therefore, skim milk is still a valuable food, it being used to a large extent for cheese making, for the manufacture of certain commercial foods, and for the feeding of animals. The housewife does not, as a rule, buy skim milk; indeed, in some localities the laws prevent its sale because it is considered an adulterated food. However, it is really a wholesome, valuable food that is cheaper than whole milk, and its use in the home should therefore be encouraged from an economical standpoint. Here it may be used in the preparation of many dishes, such as sauces, cakes, biscuits, muffins, griddle cakes, bread, etc., in which butter or other fats are used, and in custards, puddings, ices, and numerous other desserts.
  16. BUTTERMILK.--The milk that remains in butter making after the butter fat has been removed from cream by churning is known by the name buttermilk. Such milk is similar to skim milk in composition, and unless butter is made of sweet cream, buttermilk is sour. Buttermilk is used considerably as a beverage, but besides this use there are numerous ways in which it may be employed in the preparation of foods, as is pointed out in various recipes. An advantage of buttermilk is that its cost is less than that of whole milk, so that the housewife will do well to make use of it in the preparation of those foods in which it produces satisfactory results.
  17. ARTIFICIAL BUTTERMILK.--Several kinds of sour milk that are called buttermilk are to be had, particularly at soda fountains and restaurants. While they are similar to buttermilk they are not the same, because they are produced artificially from whole or skimmed sweet milk. The usual method employed in the making of these artificial buttermilks, as they may well be called, consists in adding to sweet milk tablets containing lactic acid or a certain culture of bacteria that induce fermentation, very much as yeast does, and then keeping it at about body temperature for a number of hours in order to allow the milk to thicken and sour. Such milks exert a beneficial action in the digestive tract, and their food value, provided they are made from whole milk, is just as high as that of the original sweet milk. Artificial buttermilks therefore prove a valuable source of food supply for persons who find them palatable and who do not care for sweet milk. Their food value may be increased by adding cream to them.
  18. SOUR MILK.--Ordinary milk contains large numbers of bacteria that produce fermentation. When it is allowed to stand for some time, these bacteria act upon the sugar, or lactose, contained in the milk and change it into lactic acid. This acid gives to the milk a sour taste and at the same time causes the casein of the milk to become a mass known as curd, or clabber. This mass continues to grow sour and tough until all the milk sugar is converted into lactic acid, so that the longer the milk stands, the more acid it becomes. Sour milk, however, is useful in the preparation of various dishes, such as hot breads and griddle cakes.
  19. WHEY.--When the curd is completely removed from milk, as in making cheese, a clear, light, yellowish liquid known as whey remains. Whey is composed of water, minerals, and milk sugar or lactic acid, and is the least valuable part of the milk. The ingenious housewife will never be at a loss to make use of this product, for, while its food value is slight, the minerals it contains are important ones. Whey is sometimes used to furnish the liquid for bread making and, in addition, it may be used as a beverage for persons who cannot digest food as heavy as milk itself.
  20. COMPARISON OF FOOD VALUES OF MILK PRODUCTS.--So that the housewife may become familiar with the food values of milk products, there is here given, in Fig. 1, a graphic table for the comparison of such products. Each glass is represented as containing approximately 1 pint or 1 pound of the milk product, and the figures underneath each indicate the number of calories found in the quantity represented. The triangle at the side of each indicates the proportion of ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate, and water, the percentage composition being given at the side. Housewives as a rule fully appreciate the food value that is to be found in whole milk and cream, but such products as skim milk, buttermilk, and whey are likely to be ignored.
  21. So far as the housewife is concerned, the qualities that characterize wholesome milk are without doubt of great interest. She may know of what use milk is in the diet and the food substances of which it is composed, but unless she understands just what constitutes milk of good quality, as well as the nature of inferior milk, she cannot very well provide her family with the kind it should have. Therefore, to assist her in this matter, the characteristics of wholesome milk are here discussed. Such milk, it will be well to note, must be of the right composition, must not be adulterated, must be fresh--that is, not older when delivered than is permitted by law--and must be as clean as possible.
  22. STANDARD OF MILK COMPOSITION.--The housewife usually judges the quality of milk by the amount of cream that rises to the top when milk in a bottle is allowed to remain undisturbed for some time. This is really an excellent test, because milk that contains only a small amount of cream is of poorer quality than that which contains a larger amount; in other words, the more cream milk contains, the higher will be its food value and the greater its energy-producing ability. Then, too, milk that is rich in cream usually contains proportionately large amounts of protein and sugar.
  23. ADULTERATION OF MILK.--The composition of milk, and hence its quality, is seriously affected by its adulteration. By this is meant the extraction of any of the food substances from whole milk; the addition of anything that tends to weaken or lower its quality or strength; the use of coloring matter to make it appear of greater value than it actually is; or the use of preservatives to prevent it from souring as soon as it ordinarily would. It is, of course, illegal to adulterate milk, yet it is sometimes done. The most convenient and possibly the most common materials used to adulterate milk are water and skim milk. The addition of water to milk decreases the quantity of all its food substances, but the addition of skim milk reduces the quantity of fat only. The color of the milk is often affected by the use of these adulterants, but when this happens, yellow coloring is usually added to restore the original appearance.
  24. To prevent milk from souring, dishonest milk dealers often put into it such preservatives as soda, borax, and formaldehyde. There is no definite way of telling whether or not one of these has been used, except by a chemical analysis. However, if milk does not sour within a reasonable time when no precautions have been taken to keep it sweet, it should be looked on with suspicion, for it undoubtedly contains a preservative.
  25. FRESHNESS OF MILK.--To be most satisfactory for all purposes, milk should be absolutely fresh. However, it is almost impossible to obtain milk in this condition, because it is generally sold at a distance from the source of supply. Milk that is sold in small towns and cities is usually 12 and often 18 to 21 hours old when it is delivered; whereas, in large cities, where the demand is so great that milk must be shipped from great distances, it is often 24 to 36 or even 48 hours old when it reaches the consumer. In order that milk may remain sweet long enough to permit it to be delivered at places so far removed from the source of supply, it must be handled and cared for in the cleanest possible way by the dealers. Likewise, if the housewife desires to get the best results from it, she must follow the same plan, cooling it immediately on delivery and keeping it cool until it is consumed. The freshness of milk can be determined only by the length of time it will remain sweet when proper care is given to it.
  26. CLEANLINESS OF MILK.--Milk may be of the right composition, free from all adulteration, and as fresh as it is possible to obtain it, but unless it is clean, it is an injurious food. Milk is rendered unclean or impure by dirt. In reality, there are two kinds of dirt that may be present in milk, and it is important to know just what these are and what effect they have on milk.
  27. The less harmful of the two kinds of dirt is the visible dirt that gets into the milk from the cow, the stable, the milker, the milking utensils, and similar sources when these are not scrupulously clean. If milk containing such dirt is allowed to stand long enough in pans or bottles for the heavier particles to settle, it will be found as sediment in the bottom of the receptacle. To say the least, the presence of such dirt is always disagreeable and frequently produces foreign flavors.
  28. Whenever dirt is present in milk, bacteria are sure to be there; and the greater the quantity of dirt the greater will be the number of bacteria. Should the housewife desire to compare the cleanliness of several lots of milk, she may filter a like quantity from each lot, say a quart or a pint, through small disks of absorbent cotton. If, after the milk has passed through the cotton disk, very little dirt remains on it, as in Fig. 2 (a), the milk may be considered as comparatively clean; if the cotton disk appears as in (b), the milk may be said to be only slightly dirty; if it appears as in (c), the milk is dirty; and if it appears as in (d), the milk is very dirty. Milk that leaves a stain like that in (d) contains more bacteria than milk that leaves a stain like that in (c), and so on through all the lots of milk. Filtering milk in this manner, however, does not indicate whether the bacteria are disease producing. Such information can be secured only by microscopic examination, and only then by persons who have a knowledge of such matters.
  29. Since, as has been pointed out, bacteria cling to all dirt, the dirt that milk contains is one of the causes of souring and putrefaction of milk, and may be a cause of disease. Indeed, it is definitely known that dirty milk sours much more quickly than does clean milk. Actual tests in which clean milk was put in a cool place have proved that it will keep for weeks, whereas dirty milk will sour in a day or two, especially in warm weather. This information should point out clearly to the housewife that it is not merely heat that changes milk or causes it to sour. She should understand in addition, that bacteria grow and multiply very rapidly when conditions for their growth are provided. These conditions are moisture, warmth, and the right kind of food, and as all of these are found in milk, this product is really ideal for bacterial development. The only way in which to protect milk is to make sure that no bacteria enter it, or, if they do, to make it impossible for them to grow. This may be done by keeping the milk so cold that they cannot thrive, or by destroying them in various ways, which are taken up later.
  30. In former times, there was not much danger of wide-spread disease from the milk supply, for it was cared for almost entirely by those who kept a few cows and distributed milk to a small number of customers. In fact, it has been only within the past 50 years that large quantities of milk are handled by separate dairies and shipped great distances from the source of supply and that the distribution of milk has become a great industry. When so much milk is handled in one place, it is more or less unsafe unless the dairy is kept extremely clean and is conducted in the most sanitary manner. Experience has shown that too much attention cannot be given to the care of milk, for the lives of great numbers of children have been sacrificed through the carelessness of dairymen and persons selling and distributing milk, as well as through the negligence of those who handle the milk after it has entered the home. To overcome much of this carelessness, both the Federal Government and the various states of this country have set standards for safe milk production, and in order to make their laws effective have established inspection service. Independently of these state and national laws, many of the cities, particularly the large ones, have made their own standards, which, as a rule, are very rigid. One of the usual requirements is to compel each person who wishes to sell milk in the city to buy a license, so that the city authorities may keep in touch with those handling milk and so that conditions may be investigated at any time. In view of the care required of dealers in handling milk, the housewife owes it to herself and the members of her family to keep the milk in the home in the best possible manner.
  31. Ever since milk has come to be a commercial product, authorities have been devising ways in which it may be brought to the consumer in a condition that will permit it to be used without causing ill results. Their efforts have been rewarded to such an extent that nowadays consumers have little to fear from the milk they purchase, provided they get it from dealers who live up to the laws. Chief among the different grades of clean milk is certified milk, and next in order comes pasteurized milk, followed by sterilized milk.
  32. CERTIFIED MILK.--The grade of clean milk sold under the name of certified milk is simply natural, raw milk that is produced and marketed under conditions that permit it to be guaranteed as pure, wholesome, and of definite composition. Such milk is necessarily higher in price than milk that is less wholesome and sanitary, because of the extra cost to the dairyman in meeting the requirements that make it possible for him to produce clean milk under sanitary conditions. These requirements pertain to the health and cleanliness of those who handle the milk, to the health, housing condition, and care of the herd and the dairy cows, and to the handling and care of milk in the dairy and during transportation and delivery. They are usually established and enforced by an inspection commission appointed by the city, county, or state in which the milk is produced.
  33. If a little careful thought is given to the milk situation, it will be admitted that such precautions are necessary if clean milk is to be the result. Such milk cannot be produced if the surroundings are dirty, because dust and flies, which are two sources of contamination, are practically always present in such places. A stable with poor ventilation, without screens to keep out flies, and with floors that will not permit of cleaning, but cause filth and refuse to accumulate, is sure to contaminate milk that is handled in it. In addition, cows that are not well fed, comfortably housed, or carefully groomed cannot be expected to give milk of as good quality as cows that are properly cared for. Likewise, if the persons who do the milking are not clean, the milk is subject to contamination from this source.
  34. All such unfavorable conditions can be remedied, and must be in the production of certified milk; but the good accomplished in this direction will be lost if the milk is carelessly handled after milking. Therefore, in producing certified milk, only the cleanest water available is allowed to be used in the dairy. Impure water is a common source of the contamination of milk in such places. On some farms, the water supply comes from a well that is too near the barn or that is too shallow to avoid being made impure by the germs that filter into it from the barnyard or a cesspool. If vessels in which milk is placed are washed in such water, it is necessary to sterilize them by boiling or steaming before milk is put into them, in order to kill the germs that come from the water. If such a precaution as this is not observed, the germs will multiply rapidly in the milk and, provided they are disease-producing, will make the milk extremely dangerous.
  35. It is by giving attention to all such matters that certified milk is possible. Such milk, as will be understood from what has been said, is neither a cooked milk nor a dirty milk that is processed, but a natural, raw milk that is clean at all stages of its production and marketing. Because of this fact, it is the best and cleanest milk to be had and may be used without hesitation, not only by grown persons in good health, but for infants and invalids.
  36. PASTEURIZED MILK.--While certified milk is undoubtedly the safest kind of milk to use and is constantly growing in favor, much of the milk received in the home is pasteurized. By pasteurized milk is meant milk that has been heated to a temperature of 140 to 155 degrees Fahrenheit, kept at this temperature for 15 to 20 minutes, and then cooled rapidly. The result of such a treatment is that any disease-producing germs that are present in the milk, as well as those which are likely to cause intestinal disturbances, are destroyed, and that the milk is rendered safe as food for a time. Pasteurizing does not materially change the taste of milk, nor does it seriously affect the digestive properties of this food. It is true, of course, that pasteurized milk is not so good as clean raw milk. Still it is better to use such milk than to run the risk of using milk that might be contaminated with the germs of tuberculosis, typhoid fever, scarlet fever, diphtheria, or any other of the numerous diseases that have been known to be carried to whole families and communities through the milk supply.
  37. Although pasteurizing is done on a large scale in dairies, there is no reason why the housewife cannot pasteurize the milk she buys, provided it is raw milk and she feels that it is not safe to use. If pasteurizing is to be done frequently and large quantities of milk are to be treated, it would be advisable to purchase the convenient apparatus that is to be had. However, if only a small quantity of milk is to be pasteurized at a time, a simple improvised outfit will prove satisfactory, because milk pasteurized in the home may be heated in the bottles in which it is received. Such an outfit consists of a dairy thermometer, a deep vessel, and a perforated pie tin or a wire rack of suitable size.
  38. To pasteurize milk in the home, proceed in the manner illustrated in Fig. 3. Place the rack or invert the perforated pie tin in the bottom of the vessel, and on it place the bottles of milk from which the caps have not been removed. Make a hole through the cap of one bottle, and insert the thermometer into the milk through this hole. Then fill the vessel with cold water to within an inch or so of the top of the bottles, taking care not to put in so much water as to make the bottles float. Place the vessel over the fire, heat it until the thermometer in the bottle registers a few degrees over 150 degrees Fahrenheit, and keep the milk at this temperature for 15 to 20 minutes. At the end of this time, the milk will be sufficiently pasteurized and may be removed from the fire. As soon as it is taken from the water, cool it as rapidly as possible by running cold water into the vessel slowly or by placing the bottles in several changes of water, taking care not to place the hot bottles in very cold water at first, as this may cause them to crack.
  39. STERILIZED MILK.--By sterilized milk is meant milk in which all germs are destroyed by sterilization. Such milk is not sold by dealers, but the process of sterilization is resorted to in the home when pasteurization is not sufficient to render milk safe. This process, which is the only positive means of destroying all germs, consists in bringing the milk to the boiling point, or 212 degrees Fahrenheit, allowing it to boil for three quarters of an hour, and then cooling it rapidly. One who undertakes to treat milk in this way should remember that it is difficult to boil milk, because the solids in the milk adhere to the bottom and sides of the vessel and soon burn. However, this difficulty can be overcome by sterilizing the milk in the bottles in which it is bought.
  40. To sterilize milk, place the sealed bottles on a wire rack or a perforated pie tin in a deep vessel, as for the pasteurizing of milk, and pour cold water into the vessel until it nearly covers the bottles. Then raise the temperature of the water quickly to the boiling point, and after it has begun to bubble, allow it to boil for three quarters of an hour. At the end of this time, cool the milk rapidly and then keep it cool until it is used.
  41. Although milk thus treated becomes safe, sterilization changes its flavor and digestibility. If milk of this kind must be used, some raw food should be given with it. A diet composed entirely of cooked food is not so ideal as one in which some raw food is included, because raw foods contain substances that are essential to health. The change that takes place in the composition of milk that has been sterilized can be easily observed. Such milk on becoming sour does not coagulate as does pasteurized or raw milk, owing to the fact that the lime salts in the milk are so changed by the high temperature as to prevent the thickening process from taking place. Then, too, sterilized milk is not likely to become sour even after considerable time. Still, such milk is not safe to use except when it is fresh, for instead of fermenting in the usual way it putrefies and is liable to cause such a dangerous sickness as ptomaine poisoning.
  42. MODIFIED MILK.--For infants who cannot be fed their normal diet, cow's milk must be used as a substitute, but in order to make it a more nearly ideal food for them it must usually be modified, or changed, by adding other materials. When it is so treated, it is known as modified milk. The materials used to modify milk are sterile water, lime water, barley water, cream, skim milk, milk sugar, or some other easily digested carbohydrate, one of these or a combination of them always being employed. The proportion of these ingredients to use varies with the age of the child that is to be fed and must be constantly changed to meet the child's requirements. In the production of modified milk, a physician's prescription and directions should always be followed closely. Only the best quality of milk should be used, and, in addition, the greatest care should be taken to have all the bottles, utensils, and materials used as clean and sterile as it is possible to make them. If such conditions cannot be met, it is advisable to pasteurize the modified-milk mixture after the materials have been put together.
  43. Besides milk that is commonly sold by dairymen and milk dealers, it is possible to buy in the market many grades of so-called PRESERVED
  44. CONDENSED AND EVAPORATED MILK.--As has just been mentioned, condensed and evaporated milk is produced by the complete or partial evaporation of the water contained in milk. Such milk can be shipped long distances or kept for long periods of time, because it does not contain sufficient moisture to permit the growth of bacteria. In evaporating milk to produce these preserved milks, each gallon is diminished in quantity to about two and one quarter pints, the original 87 per cent. of water being reduced to about 25 per cent. Therefore, in order to use such milk, sufficient water must be added to restore it to its original composition. Sometimes comparatively large amounts of cane sugar are added to such milks, which, besides sweetening them, assist in their preservation. If cane sugar is not used, the milks are usually made sterile in order to prevent them from spoiling.
  45. POWDERED MILK.--The form of preserved milk known as powdered milk is the result of completely evaporating the water in milk. Such milk has the appearance of a dry powdered substance. It does not spoil easily and is so greatly reduced in quantity that it can be conveniently stored. Because of these characteristics, this product, for which skim milk is generally used, is extensively manufactured. It is used chiefly by bakers and confectioners, and, as in the case of evaporated or condensed milk, the water that has been evaporated in the powdering process must be supplied when the milk is used.
  46. In order that a definite idea may be formed of the sanitary and bacteriological standards that are set by milk commissions, there are here given, in Table I, the regulations governing the grades and designation of milk and cream that may be sold in the city of New York. As will be observed from a study of this table, only definite grades of milk and cream can be sold in that city; likewise, it must conform to certain standards of purity and the producer must handle it in such a way that it may be delivered to the consumer in as clean and fresh a condition as possible.
  47. After the housewife has become familiar with the points that she should know concerning milk, she will be much better equipped to purchase milk of the right kind for her home. However, there are still some points for her to observe when she is purchasing milk if she would supply her family with the best quality of this food.
  48. In the first place, she should buy milk from a reliable dealer who will not object to questioning, and, if possible, she should make an investigation of the dairy that supplies the milk that she uses. If she cannot investigate the dairy personally, she should at least endeavor to obtain information from those who are prepared to give it. If she learns that the conditions in the dairy that is supplying her with milk are not what they should be, she should try to obtain milk from some other source. Of course, she should remember that milk of the best and cleanest quality is the highest in price, because of the increased cost of production; but it is usually advisable to pay the higher price, especially if children are to be fed, because cheap milk is liable to be unsafe, at least for any purpose that will require it to be served without cooking. Should the income not allow the best quality of milk to be used for all purposes, a cheaper grade can be used for cooking, but it is always economical to purchase the best quality when this food is to be used as a beverage.
  49. In the next place, the housewife should purchase milk from a dealer who delivers cold milk, because, as has been mentioned, bacteria multiply rapidly in warm milk. She should also try to obtain milk put up in bottles, for such milk has advantages over milk dipped from a can in that it does not have the same chance to become dirty and it affords a greater opportunity to secure accurate measurement. The kind of caps used on milk bottles should also be observed. Caps that have to be pried out with a knife or a similar utensil are not nearly so satisfactory as those shown in Fig. 5 (a), which have small tabs a that permit the cap to be lifted out. In addition to the caps, which serve to keep dirt out of the milk and permit it to be delivered without being spilled, some dealers use covers like that shown in (b). Such covers are held in place by a wire and serve further to protect the milk from contamination.
  50. NECESSITY FOR CARE IN THE HOME.--If milk of good quality is bought, and, as has been suggested, this should be done whenever it is possible, the next thing to do is to care for it in such a way that it may be fed to the family in the same condition as it was when delivered. It is, of course, of prime importance that the dairyman deliver clean fresh milk, but this is not sufficient; the milk must remain in this condition until it is used, and this can occur only when the housewife knows how to care for it properly after it enters the home. It is possible to make safe milk unsafe and unsafe milk positively dangerous unless the housewife understands how to care for milk and puts into practice what she knows concerning this matter. Indeed, some of the blame laid to the careless handling of milk by dairymen really belongs to housewives, for very often they do not take care of milk in the right way after delivery. As too much attention cannot be given to this matter, explicit directions are here outlined, with the idea of assisting the housewife in this matter as much as possible.
  51. KEEPING MILK CLEAN IN THE HOME.--Immediately upon delivery, the bottle containing the milk should be placed in the coolest place available, never being allowed to stand on the porch in the sun or where such animals as cats or dogs may come in contact with it. When the milk is to be used, the paper cap should be carefully wiped before it is removed from the bottle, so that any dirt that may be on top will not fall into the milk. If not all the milk is used and the bottle must be returned to the cool place where it is kept, it should be covered by means of an inverted drinking glass or, as shown in Fig. 6, by a glass or porcelain cover. Such covers, or sanitary milk caps, as they are called, are very convenient for this purpose and may be purchased at a slight cost.
  52. Another precaution that should be taken is never to mix stale milk with fresh milk, because the entire quantity will become sour in the same length of time as the stale milk would. Also, milk that has been poured into a pitcher or any other open vessel and allowed to stand exposed to the air for some time should never be put back into the bottle with the remaining milk. Such milk is sure to be contaminated with the germs that are always present in the dust constantly circulating in the air. It is sometimes necessary to keep milk in a vessel other than the bottle in which it is delivered. In such an event, the vessel that is used should be washed thoroughly, boiled in clean water, and cooled before the milk is poured into it.
  53. Particular care should be taken of the empty milk bottles. They should never be used for anything except milk. Before they are returned to the dairyman to be used again, they should first be rinsed with cold water, then washed thoroughly with hot, soapy water, and finally rinsed with hot water. If there is illness in the home, the washed bottles should be put into a pan of cool water, allowed to come to a boil, and permitted to boil for a few minutes. Such attention will free the bottles from any contamination they might have received. The dairyman, of course, gives the bottles further attention before he uses them again, but the housewife should do her part by making sure that they are thoroughly cleansed before they are collected by him.
  54. KEEPING MILK COOL IN THE HOME.--As has been pointed out, milk should, upon being received, be kept in the coolest place available, which, in the majority of homes at the present time, is the refrigerator. In making use of the refrigerator for this purpose, the housewife should put into practice what she learned in Essentials of Cookery, Part 2, concerning the proper placing of food in the refrigerator, remembering that milk should be placed where it will remain the coolest and where it is least likely to absorb odors. She should also bear in mind that the temperature inside of a refrigerator varies with that of the surrounding air. It is because of this fact that milk often sours when the temperature is high, as in summer, for instance, even though it is kept in the refrigerator.
  55. In case a refrigerator is not available, it will be necessary to resort to other means of keeping milk cool. A cool cellar or basement is an excellent substitute, but if milk is kept in either of these places, it must be tightly covered. Then, too, the spring house with its stream of running water is fully as good as a refrigerator And is used extensively in farming districts. But even though a housewife has none of these at her disposal, she need not be deprived of fresh milk, for there are still other ways of keeping milk cool and consequently fresh. A very simple way in which to keep milk cool is to weight down the bottles in a vessel that is deeper than they are and then pour cold water into the vessel until it reaches the top of the bottles, replacing the water occasionally as it becomes warm. A still better way, however, so far as convenience and results are concerned, is that illustrated in Fig. 7. As shown, wrap the bottle in a clean towel or piece of cotton cloth so that one corner of it is left loose at the top. Then place this end in a pan of cold water that stands higher than the bottle. Such an arrangement will keep the cloth wet constantly and by the evaporation of the water from it will cause the milk to remain cool.
  56. POINTS TO BE OBSERVED IN COOKING MILK.--Because of the nature of milk and its constituents, the cooking of this liquid is a little more difficult than would appear at first thought. In fact, heating milk to a temperature greater than 155 degrees Fahrenheit causes several changes to occur in it, one of which, the coagulation of the albumin, has already been mentioned. As the albumin hardens into the layer that forms on the top of boiled milk, a certain amount of fat, sugar, and casein becomes entangled in it, and if the coagulated skin is rejected, these food substances, in addition to the albumin, are lost. Another change that results from boiling is in the fat globules that remain, for these separate and exist no longer in the form of cream.
  57. When milk that is not perfectly fresh is cooked with other materials or soups, sauces, and puddings it sometimes curdles. To prevent curdling, the milk should be heated as rapidly as possible before it is used with the other ingredients. While the separate heating of the milk involves a little more work, time may be gained by heating the milk while the remaining ingredients are being prepared. The curdling of comparatively fresh milk is often caused by the addition of salt, especially if the salt is added when the milk is hot. However, if a pinch of bicarbonate of soda is added to the milk before it is heated, it will not be likely to curdle even though it is not absolutely fresh. When tomato is to be used in soup that contains milk or cream, curdling can be prevented if the milk or the cream to be used is thickened with flour or corn starch or a little soda is added to the tomato before the two are mixed. The mixing is accomplished by pouring the tomato into the milk instead of the milk into the tomato. When acid fruit juices are to be added to milk or cream and the mixture then frozen, curdling can be prevented by thoroughly chilling the milk or cream in the freezer can before combining it with the juices.
  58. As has already been learned, great care must be taken in the heating of milk, because the solids that it contains adhere quickly to the bottom of the pan and cause the milk to scorch. For this reason, milk should never be heated directly over the flame unless the intention is to boil it, and even if it must be boiled every precaution should be taken to prevent it from burning. It should be remembered, too, that a very small scorched area will be sufficient to make a quantity of milk taste burned. The utensil in which milk can be heated in the most satisfactory way is the double boiler, for the milk does not come in direct contact with the heat in this utensil. If a double boiler is not available, good results can be obtained by setting one pan into another that contains water.
  59. Milk is often used in place of water for cooking cereals, beverages, puddings, soups, etc. This is good practice and should be followed whenever possible, for when milk is added it serves to increase the nutritive value of the food. It should be observed, however, that more time is required to cook grains or cereals in milk than to cook them in water, because milk contains more solid matter than water and is not absorbed so quickly. Another frequent use of milk is in breads and biscuits, where, as is explained in Bread and Hot Breads, it produces a browner and more tender crust than water.
  60. VARIETY OF WAYS TO USE MILK IN COOKING.--Because of the numerous purposes for which milk is required in the preparation of foods, the smallest amount of it, whether sweet or sour, can be utilized in cooking; therefore, no milk need ever be wasted. A few of the uses to which this food is oftenest put are mentioned briefly in order that the housewife may be familiar enough with them to call them to mind whenever she desires to carry out a recipe that calls for milk or when she has occasion to utilize milk that she has on hand.
  61. From the discussion given up to this point, it will be noted that milk is used in a large variety of ways and in the making of numerous dishes. However, most of the dishes in which this liquid occurs involve other important materials, so that the recipes for them are usually listed under some other ingredient or division of cookery. For instance, milk is used in the making of ice cream, but as the ice creams are included among cold desserts, recipes for them would naturally come in the Section pertaining to this subject. Milk is also an important ingredient in puddings, but the recipes for such dishes are given in the Section in which puddings and their sauces are discussed.
  62. Plain Junket.--In the stomachs of all animals that use milk as food is found a digestive ferment known as rennin. This is taken from the stomachs of calves, made up commercially, and sold in the form of tablets called junket. When these tablets are used properly with milk, they coagulate the milk and make an excellent dessert that resembles custard and that is very easy to digest. Because of its nature and qualities, this kind of dessert is used largely for invalids and children. The following recipe gives the proportion and directions for making this dessert in its simplest form.
  63. Junket With. Fruit.--The addition of fruit to junket, as in the dish illustrated in Fig. 8, makes an attractive dessert for both sick and well people. If the fruit used is permissible in the diet of an invalid, its combination with junket adds variety to the diet. In the making of this dessert, all juice should be carefully drained from the fruit before the junket is poured over it. Canned or fresh fruits may be used with equally good results.
  64. CHOCOLATE JUNKET.--Chocolate added to plain junket not only varies the junket dessert, but also adds food value, since chocolate contains a large quantity of fat that is easily digested by most persons. Where the flavor of chocolate is found agreeable, such junket may be served in place of the plain junket.
  65. CARAMEL JUNKET.--In the making of caramel junket, browned, or caramelized, sugar and water take the place of part of the milk, and while a certain amount of the sugar is reduced in the browning, the caramel is still very high in food value and adds nutritive material to the dessert. There is nothing about caramel junket to prevent its being given to any one able to take plain junket, and if it is made correctly it has a very delightful flavor.
  66. Three white sauces are commonly used for different purposes, and in each one of them milk is the basis. These sauces differ from one another in thickness, and include thin white sauce, which is used for cream toast and soups; medium white sauce, which is used for dressing vegetables and is flavored in various ways to accompany meats, patties, or croquettes; and thick white sauce, which is used to mix with the materials used for croquettes in order to hold them together. To insure the best results, the proportion of flour and liquid should be learned for each kind, and to avoid the formation of lumps the proper method of mixing should be carefully followed out. A white sauce properly made is perfectly smooth, and since only little care is needed to produce such a result it is inexcusable to serve a lumpy sauce. Also, nothing is more disagreeable than thick, pasty sauce, but this can be avoided by employing the right proportion of flour and milk. The ingredients and their proportions for the various kinds of white sauce are as follows
  66. SCALLOPED EGGS.--A quantity of carbohydrate is added to eggs when they are scalloped, for the white sauce and the cracker crumbs that are used in this dish supply this food substance. The cold meat that this dish requires and that should be well chopped into small pieces may be left-over from roasted, stewed, or even broiled meat. As this provides an additional amount of protein, the dish on the whole serves as an excellent substitute for meat with carbohydrate added.
  67. INDIVIDUAL BAKING DISHES FOR EGG RECIPES.--Although the directions given in the preceding recipe for scalloped eggs state that this recipe is baked in a baking dish, it is not necessary that one large dish of this kind be used, for, if desired, individual baking dishes may be substituted. In fact, any recipe for which a large baking dish would ordinarily be used may be baked in the small dishes used for a single serving, and eggs prepared in this way are especially attractive. Such dishes are also used for the baking of custards or the molding of jelly and blanc mange. Since they prove very useful and find so much favor, it is advisable for every housewife to add a few of them to her supply of utensils and to become familiar with the varieties that can be secured and the proper way to use them.
  68. When such dishes are used as a means of adding variety to the cooking and serving of eggs, they should be placed in the oven in a shallow pan containing enough hot water to come nearly to the top of them. The object of this plan is to keep the temperature uniform. As long as the dishes are surrounded by water, the food to be cooked will not attain a greater heat than 212 degrees Fahrenheit, because the surrounding water cannot reach a higher temperature. Food cooked in this way will be found to be baked much more evenly and to be of a better consistency than food that is subjected to the high temperature of the oven. Most of the recipes that follow, while they can be baked in large baking dishes if desired and then served from the dish, are designed particularly to be used in individual baking dishes.
  69. BAKED EGGS IN CREAM.--A dish that is particularly desirable for breakfast, but that may be served for luncheon, is made by baking eggs in cream according to the accompanying recipe. Besides being very appetizing, this dish is high in food value because of the addition of the cream and fat. Crisp toast served with eggs prepared in this way is very delightful.
  70. SHIRRED EGGS WITH HAM.--An excellent way in which to utilize scraps of ham is to combine them with eggs to make a dish that may be served in place of meat. This dish, besides being high in food value, is very tasty because of the flavor of the ham and the fact that it is quite highly seasoned.
  71. EGG SOUFFLÉ.--If a delicate dish for children or invalids is desired, egg soufflé will answer the purpose very well. This dish is light in character, but it is high in protein and to most persons is very delightful. It is more attractive if baked in individual baking dishes, but it may be baked in a large baking dish and served directly from the dish. To improve the flavor of egg soufflé and make it a more appetizing dish, tomato sauce is often served with it.
  72. The tomato sauce that is often served with egg soufflé is made as follows
  73. Alpine Eggs.--It is rather unusual to combine cream or cottage cheese with eggs, so that when this is done, as in the accompanying recipe, a dish that is out of the ordinary is the result. If not a sufficient amount of cottage cheese is in supply to serve for a meal, it may very well be used for this dish. Otherwise, cream cheese serves nicely.
  74. Clipped Eggs.--The chief value of clipped eggs is their appearance, which, as will be observed in Fig. 17, is very attractive. This dish adds much to the breakfast tray of an invalid or will tempt the appetite of a child who does not feel like eating. But in addition to being attractive, this dish is high in food value, for in this respect it is exactly equivalent to a poached egg on toast or a plain egg served with a piece of toast to which is added a small amount of butter.
  75. LEFT-OVER EGGS.--It is not a difficult matter to utilize eggs in any form in which they may be left over, for they combine readily with many other foods. For instance, left-over hard-cooked eggs may be sliced or chopped and used to garnish dishes of vegetables, meat, fish, or salads. Eggs cooked in this way may also be stuffed according to the recipe given in Art. 63, or they may be crushed and mixed with seasoning for sandwiches. If any soft-cooked eggs remain after a meal, they should be hard-cooked in order to be used to the best advantage. Left-over omelet or scrambled, poached, or fried eggs may be chopped and added to soups, sauces, or gravies, or combined with small pieces of meat or fish and used with crumbs and white sauce to make a scalloped dish.
  76. So that a definite idea may be formed of the student's progress in cookery, there is here presented a breakfast menu that is to be prepared and reported on at the same time that the answers to the Examination Questions are sent. This menu is practical and it may be easily prepared, as all the dishes it contains have already been considered.
  76. BEETS WITH SOUR DRESSING.--To give variety, beets are sometimes served with a sour dressing. Probably no other vegetable lends itself so well to this sort of preparation as beets, with the result that a very appetizing dish is provided.
  77. BAKED BEETS.--If something entirely different in the way of a vegetable dish is wanted, baked beets will meet with favor. Beets may be baked in a covered baking dish or on the open grate of an oven. A slow fire produces the best results, and as a rule it will take 4 or 5 hours to bake good-sized beets.
  78. PICKLED BEETS.--When beets are cooked for any of the recipes that have been given, it will be economy to boil more than will be needed for one meal, for a large number can be cooked with practically the same quantity of fuel as a few. Then the remainder may be pickled by peeling them, cutting them into slices, and pouring over them hot vinegar sweetened slightly and flavored with spice. Pickled beets make an excellent relish and they will keep for an indefinite period.
  79. BRUSSELS SPROUTS, as shown in Fig. 6, look just like tiny green heads of cabbage. These heads grow along a stem that protrudes above the surface of the ground in much the same way as does the stem to which a head of cabbage is attached. The heads are cut from the stem and then usually packed in quart boxes. It is in such boxes as these that they are found in the markets, where they can be purchased from December until early spring. They are considered a great delicacy because of the fineness of their flavor, which rivals that of cauliflower and, while closely resembling that of cabbage, is much superior to it. In food value, they are somewhat higher than cauliflower, but about equal to beets.
  80. COOKING OF BRUSSELS SPROUTS.--To prepare Brussels sprouts for the table, break off the outside leaves from the heads, and then in order to remove any bugs that may be lodged in the heads, allow them to stand in cold salted water for 1 hour or so before cooking. After removing the sprouts from the salted water, pour enough boiling water over them to cover them well, add 1 teaspoonful of salt to each quart of water, and boil without any cover on the kettle until they can be easily pierced with a fork. Care should be taken not to overcook the sprouts, for when they are cooked too long they become red in color and develop a strong flavor.
  81. BUTTERED BRUSSELS SPROUTS.--When Brussels sprouts are properly cooked and then seasoned with salt and pepper and flavored with butter, an appetizing dish is the result. To make such a dish for about six persons, prepare and cook 1 quart of Brussels sprouts in the manner just explained. When they are tender, pour off the water, season with additional salt and a dash of pepper, and add 2 tablespoonfuls of butter. Allow the butter to melt over the sprouts and then serve hot.
  83. SCALLOPED BRUSSELS SPROUTS.--Undoubtedly the most palatable way of preparing Brussels sprouts is to scallop them. The ingredients used in the preparation of this dish add food value, as well as flavor.
  84. CABBAGE consists of the foliage of the cabbage plant. It is a succulent vegetable with a high flavor; in fact, its flavor is so strong that in many cases it disagrees with persons. However, if cabbage is properly cooked, no apprehension need be felt about eating it, for it can be digested by most persons. The food value of cabbage is not high, being even less than that of string beans. The greater part of this food value is carbohydrate in the form of sugar, but in order to prepare cabbage so that it has any importance in the meal, considerable quantities of protein, fat, and carbohydrate must be added. In itself, it is valuable for its mineral salts and bulk.
  85. SELECTION AND CARE OF CABBAGE.--Heads of cabbage that feel firm and solid to the touch and are rather heavy for their size are the best to select for cooking purposes. This vegetable comes into the market early in the summer and may be had until late in the fall. As it has excellent keeping qualities, it may be stored for use as a winter vegetable. When this is done, the stem and the roots should be allowed to remain on the head, for then the cabbage is less apt to wither. If this precaution is taken and the cabbage is stored in a cool place, no great care is required to keep it in good condition until it is to be cooked unless, of course, it is kept for an abnormal length of time.
  86. PREPARATION AND COOKING OF CABBAGE.--To prepare cabbage for cooking, remove the outside leaves and then cut the head that remains into pieces of any desirable size. Whether the cabbage should be left in large pieces or cut very fine depends on the dish that is to be prepared. For the first cutting, be sure to cut the head down through the heart and the stem, so that the part not used will remain intact. This may then be used another time if it is kept cool and moist. In case the cabbage becomes at all wilted, it may be freshened by placing it in cold water a short time before it is to be cooked.
  87. Cabbage is a vegetable that has many uses and is eaten both raw and cooked. Numerous opinions exist about the difference in digestibility between raw and cooked cabbage, as well as the best ways in which to cook this vegetable. It may be true that in some cases raw cabbage does not cause the disagreeable effect that cooked cabbage often does, but the reason for this is that cabbage when raw has a milder flavor than when cooked, cabbage generally developing during the cooking a strong flavor that causes trouble. The flavor of cabbage, however, may be dissipated if attention is given to the cooking, so that, when properly prepared, cabbage can be eaten with little fear of indigestion.
  88. When cabbage is cooked, it is usually boiled like other vegetables; that is, it is covered well with boiling water to which 1 teaspoonful of salt is added for each quart, and then allowed to boil until it can be easily pierced with a fork. Its cooking differs, however, from that of many vegetables, string beans, for instance, in that it is carried on with the cover removed from the kettle. This plan permits of the evaporation of much of the strong flavor, which arises in the steam and which would otherwise be reabsorbed by the cabbage. Since it is the retention of this flavor, together with long cooking, that causes this vegetable to disagree with persons who eat it, both of these points should be carefully watched. If it is cooked in an open vessel and it is boiled just long enough to be tender, so that when done it is white and fresh-looking and not in any way discolored, an easily digested dish will be the result. Usually cabbage will cook sufficiently in 1/2 hour and often in less time.
  89. BOILED CABBAGE.--Although cabbage permits of numerous methods of preparation, plain boiled cabbage finds favor with many persons.
  90. CREAMED CABBAGE.--When cabbage is to be creamed, it is cut up into fairly fine pieces with a sharp knife. The cream sauce that is added to it provides considerable food value and greatly improves its flavor.
  91. SCALLOPED CABBAGE.--Scalloped cabbage is a particularly appetizing vegetable dish, and, on account of the ingredients used in its preparation, it is more nutritious than some of the other dishes in which cabbage is used.
  93. MAKING SAUERKRAUT.--As is well known, sauerkraut is a cabbage preparation that is made by salting finely cut cabbage, packing it tightly, and allowing it to ferment under pressure. This food is made and sold commercially, so that the housewife can usually purchase it in any quantity she desires. However, as it is not at all difficult to make sauerkraut, and as a supply of cabbage in this form provides a valuable article of food during the winter months in households where it is relished, the housewife will do well to prepare enough of this kind of cabbage to vary her meals during the winter. That she may understand how to proceed with the making of sauerkraut and the proper cooking of it, the accompanying directions and recipes are given.
  94. For every 10 medium-sized heads of cabbage, measure 2 cupfuls of salt. Cut the heads of cabbage into quarters and shred on a cabbage slicer, or cutter. Place several inches of the shredded cabbage in the bottom of a large crock, and over it sprinkle a layer of salt. Stamp this down with a wooden potato masher or some other similar utensil. Then add another layer of cabbage and salt and stamp this down in the same way. Proceed in this manner until the crock is nearly full. Then place a clean cloth over the cabbage in the crock. On this cloth place a clean board as near the size of the crock as possible, and on the board place a large clean stone or some other weight. When thus filled and weighted down, place the crock in a cool place. The cabbage will then begin to ferment, and it is this fermentation that changes the cabbage into sauerkraut. After a time, juice will form and gradually rise over the top of the board, and on top of this juice will form a scum. Remove this scum at once, and do not allow any to collect at any time after the fermentation of the cabbage ceases. Occasionally, when a supply of sauerkraut is taken from the crock for cooking, replace the cloth by a clean one, but always be sure to put the board and the weight back in place.
  95. SAUERKRAUT WITH SPARERIBS.--Persons who are fond of sauerkraut find the combination of sauerkraut and spareribs very appetizing. The spareribs give the cabbage a very pleasing flavor and at the same time supply nourishment to the dish.
  96. BAKED SAUERKRAUT.--In the cooking of sauerkraut for the table, pork in one form or another is generally added; in fact, one rarely thinks of sauerkraut except in combination with pork. While boiling is the method that is usually applied to this vegetable, many housewives prefer to bake it, for then the odor does not escape so easily and a flavor that most persons prefer is developed.
  97. SAUTÉD SAUERKRAUT.--If an entirely different way of cooking sauerkraut is desired, it may be sautéd. When nicely browned and served with boiled frankfurters, it is very appetizing.
  98. CARROTS are one of the root vegetables. They are similar in composition to beets, having practically the same total food value, which is for the most part carbohydrate in the form of sugar. Besides being valuable in the diet for their mineral salts and bulk, they add variety to the menu, especially in the winter, for upon maturing they can be kept for a long time if they are properly stored. As tiny young carrots, they are also much used as a summer vegetable, and when cooked whole and served in an attractive way they make a delicious vegetable dish.
  99. SELECTION AND PREPARATION.--The selection of carrots is a simple matter, because they keep well and are not likely to be found in a spoiled condition in the market. When small summer carrots are purchased, they should be fresh and should have their tops on. Winter carrots should be as nearly uniform in size as possible and should not be extremely large. Those which are too large in circumference are likely to have a hollow in the center and are not nearly so desirable as thin, solid ones. Carrots of any kind should be uniform in color, and should be without the green portion that is sometimes found on the top near the stem and that is caused by exposure to the light in growing.
  100. In preparing carrots for cooking, they should be scraped rather than peeled, in order to avoid wasting any of the vegetable. They are always cooked in boiling salted water, after which they can be treated in various ways. The water in which carrots are cooked should not be thrown away, as it may be used to flavor soup stock. If any carrots remain after a meal, they may be utilized in vegetable salad or soup.
  101. BUTTERED CARROTS.--If small, tender carrots can be obtained, they will be found to be delicious upon being boiled and then dressed with butter. Winter carrots may be prepared in this way too, but they will probably require a little more cooking to make them tender.
  102. CARROTS WITH PARSLEY.--The addition of parsley to carrots gives a flavor that improves them very much. This should be chopped fine and added after the carrots have cooked sufficiently.
  103. BROWNED CARROTS.--A very appetizing way in which to prepare carrots is to cut them in slices lengthwise, boil them until tender, and then brown them in fat. Wash and scrape the desired number of carrots, cut into slices lengthwise, and if large-sized carrots are used, cut the slices into halves. Cook in boiling salted water until tender and then drain. Melt some fat in a frying pan, place the carrots in the hot fat, and brown first on one side and then on the other, turning the slices carefully so as not to break them. A few minutes before removing the carrots from the frying pan, sprinkle sugar over them and allow the sugar to melt. In removing them to a vegetable dish, pour over them the sirup that forms. Serve hot.
  104. CAULIFLOWER grows in heads as does cabbage, but only the flower or blossom of the plant is eaten. A head of cauliflower from which the leaves have not been removed is shown in Fig. 8. In flavor and composition this vegetable is similar to cabbage, but its flavor is a little more delicate. Still, cauliflower should always be cooked in an uncovered vessel, as are cabbage and Brussels sprouts, if a strong disagreeable flavor would be avoided.
  105. SELECTION AND COOKING.--Very solid heads of cauliflower that are creamy white in color and free from the black specks or blemishes so common to this vegetable should be selected for cooking. The only care that cauliflower requires before cooking is to keep it in a cool place, for it does not wilt nor decay quickly.
  106. CAULIFLOWER WITH TOMATO SAUCE.--Variety can be secured in the preparation of cauliflower by serving it with a tomato sauce. Besides being very palatable, this is an extremely attractive dish because of the contrast in colors. Chicken gravy may be used instead of tomato sauce, and a most delightful dish is the result.
  107. SCALLOPED CAULIFLOWER.--Another opportunity to make a delicious scalloped dish is afforded by cauliflower. In fact, many persons prefer scalloped cauliflower to any of the dishes made from this vegetable. The ingredients used with the cauliflower increase its food value, which is somewhat low.
  108. CREAMED CAULIFLOWER.--A very attractive vegetable dish can be prepared from cauliflower by cooking the head whole and then serving a cream sauce over it, as shown in Fig. 9. In serving, a portion of the head should be broken off for each person and served with a little of the cream sauce.
  109. CELERY is the stem of a plant that grows in stalks, as shown in
  110. CARE AND PREPARATION.--Well-bleached, firm stalks of celery should be selected for use. After it comes into the house, it may be kept in good condition for a long time if it is wrapped in a damp cloth and put where it will keep cool. A good plan is to serve the hearts and tender inside stems raw, as explained in Soup, and then to use the coarse outside stems for cooking, flavoring soups, or making salads. Celery must be cleaned carefully for dirt often clings to the ridges. After being scrubbed thoroughly, it will become crisp and tender if it is allowed to stand in cold water for some time before serving. When it is to be served as a cooked vegetable, it should be cooked in boiling salted water, as are other vegetables, and then seasoned or dressed in any desirable way. The water in which it is cooked should be utilized in the making of sauce or soup.
  111. CREAMED CELERY.--The usual way of preparing celery when it is to be served as a cooked vegetable is to cream it. The cream sauce that is added to the celery increases its food value considerably and greatly improves its flavor. This sauce may be made entirely of milk or of half milk and half liquid from the celery.
  112. CELERY AU GRATIN.--The food value of celery may be still further increased by combining it with cheese and bread crumbs in addition to a cream sauce. Such a dish, which is known as celery au gratin, is prepared according to the accompanying recipe.
  113. The seeds of the maize plant, or Indian corn, especially the variety known as sweet corn, are eaten as a vegetable when they are immature. They grow on a woody cob, and when they are green they are soft and milky; but when they become ripe they are hard and are then ground as grain. Many varieties of sweet corn are used, but some are better in quality than others. In some varieties, the kernels, or seeds, are yellow, while in others they are white; also, some of them are suitable for use early in the summer, while others come later in the season. However, in spite of this difference in quality, color, and season, all kinds of corn used as a vegetable are called green corn and may be prepared in exactly the same ways.
  114. The food value of corn, which is very high, even exceeding that of
  115. The ear on which the corn kernels grow is entirely encased in several layers of husks. These are not removed until just before the corn is to be cooked; so when this vegetable is in the market the husks are allowed to remain on the ears. The condition of the ears can be determined by stripping the husks down a little and examining the kernels. If they are well filled, they may be considered to be in proper condition; otherwise, they will not be suitable for cooking. No special care need be given to green corn, provided it is not husked. However, when it has been husked, it should be cooked at once. In the husking of corn, all corn silk that is found inside of the husks should be carefully removed, for this is very annoying in the cooked vegetable and its presence indicates carelessness.
  116. CORN ON THE COB.--The simplest way in which to prepare green corn is to cook it on the cob. When corn first comes into the market, it is usually very tender and makes a most satisfactory dish when prepared in this way.
  117. CORN COOKED IN MILK.--Often it is not desired to eat corn on the cob. When this is the case, it may be cut off the ear and cooked in various ways. A simple way to prepare it is to cook it with milk and season it with salt, pepper, and butter, as explained in the accompanying recipe.
  119. CORN SOUFFLÉ.--No more delightful corn dish can be prepared than corn soufflé, for in addition to its being appetizing and nutritious, it is extremely dainty. It may be cooked in a baking dish, but it is more attractive when baked in individual baking dishes. A point to remember about its preparation is that it should be served immediately upon being taken from the oven, for soufflé always shrinks as it cools.
  120. CORN OYSTERS.--Variety can be secured in the use of corn by making corn oysters. These get their name from the fact that they resemble oysters in both size and shape. They may be served as a garnish for a meat dish or as a vegetable dish.
  121. CORN FRITTERS.--The popularity of corn fritters, which have corn pulp as their foundation, is undoubtedly due both to their flavor and to the variety they afford in the diet. After being fried, corn fritters should appear as shown in Fig. 14. They may be served plain, but most persons prefer them with a sauce of some kind or with maple sirup.
  122. The hard-rinded fruit of the cucumber plant has been used from time immemorial as a vegetable. In food value, cucumbers are very low, comparing closely with celery in this respect; however, as they contain a large amount of cellulose, or bulk, and mineral salts, they should not be disregarded in the diet. They have a rather strong flavor due to their volatile oils, which so frequently disagree with persons and which give cucumbers a reputation for being difficult to digest. However, when they are properly prepared, they can be eaten by most persons without harm.
  123. Formerly it was the custom to soak slices of cucumber in salt water before serving them. This procedure, however, has been found to be poor policy, for nothing is gained by it and the salt toughens the cellulose and makes the cucumbers limp and rubbery in texture. A much more satisfactory way to prepare cucumbers is to slice them and then soak them for some time before serving in ice water or water as cold as can be obtained. They will then become crisp and delicious, and, besides being more appetizing and agreeable, they will be no less digestible. After being sliced and chilled, cucumbers are often combined with sliced onions and eaten with vinegar, salt, and pepper, or they are eaten alone or on lettuce, dressed with mayonnaise dressing.
  124. STUFFED CUCUMBERS.--Possibly the only recipe for cooked cucumbers that is used to any extent is the accompanying one for stuffed cucumbers. Cucumbers prepared in this way are very palatable, and because of the ingredients used are much higher in food value than when eaten alone. Such a dish is attractive, too, as Fig. 15 shows.
  125. EGGPLANT belongs to the class of fruit vegetables, and is closely related to the tomato in structure and composition. It grows rather large in size, is covered with a smooth brownish-purple skin, and is made up of material that is close and firm in texture and creamy white in color. Because of the nature of its structure, eggplant would seem to be high in food value, but, on the contrary, this vegetable has very little. In this respect, it is about equal to cabbage and cauliflower and slightly less than string beans.
  126. Eggplant is found in the market from early summer until the beginning of winter. Because it is protected by a heavy skin, it keeps well and needs no special care in storage. The strong flavor of the pulp is disagreeable to many persons. However, it has been found that much of this flavor may be removed by soaking the eggplant in strong salt water or by sprinkling it with salt after it has been sliced and then allowing it to stand for some time. It may be prepared in a variety of ways; so, if the members of the family care for it, the housewife will find it of great assistance in planning and preparing meals.
  127. SAUTÉD EGGPLANT.--The usual way of preparing eggplant is to cut it into slices and then sauté it. As the slices are dipped into beaten egg and then into crumbs before sautéing, the food value of this vegetable is increased and its flavor improved.
  128. BAKED EGGPLANT.--An attractive dish can be made by removing the contents from an eggplant, filling the cavity with a well-seasoned stuffing, and then baking the stuffed eggplant. When an eggplant is prepared in this way, it will appear as in Fig. 16.
  129. SCALLOPED EGGPLANT.--If it is desired to increase the food value of eggplant and improve its flavor too, this vegetable should be scalloped.
  130. FRENCH ARTICHOKES, sometimes known as globe artichokes, California artichokes, and cardoons, are related to the family of thistles. They are grown for the sake of their large flower-heads, or buds, which are shown in Fig. 17 and which are much used as a food. These plants stand storage and shipment very well and may be kept for long periods of time without spoiling. It is therefore possible to transport them considerable distances, a very gratifying fact, since most persons consider artichokes a great delicacy.
  131. Not all of the artichoke plant is eaten. The portions of the flower that develop in the center of the base are removed before the base is eaten. After the artichokes are cooked, the scales, or leaves, are pulled from the cooked head with the fingers and the lower part of each one is dipped into sauce and eaten. The inner scales are much more tender and edible than the coarse outside ones. Although artichokes find favor with many and are considered somewhat of a delicacy, they are low in food value, being about equal to asparagus in this respect. To add food material, a dressing, such as drawn-butter sauce or mayonnaise dressing, is usually served.
  131. CORN AND TOMATOES.--A somewhat unusual vegetable combination is made by cooking tomatoes and green corn together.
  132. CORN, STRING BEANS, AND TOMATOES.--Those who care for the combination of corn and tomatoes will find beans a very agreeable addition to this dish.
  133. PEAS AND POTATOES.--As a rule, the first green peas and the first new potatoes come into the market at about the same time. If a delicious combination is desired, these two vegetables should be cooked together and then dressed in any desirable way.
  134. TURNIPS AND POTATOES.--Persons who are likely to find the flavor of turnips disagreeable can usually eat them when they are combined with potatoes.
  135. NEW ENGLAND BOILED DINNER.--A combination of food that is much used by the people of the New England States and has become famous throughout the United States, consists of corned beef, potatoes, turnips, and cabbage. As may well be imagined, such a combination forms practically all that is necessary for a home dinner.
  136. The way in which vegetables are served depends largely on the method of preparation. However, a point that should never be neglected, so far as cooked vegetables are concerned, no matter what plan of serving is followed, is to see that they are always served hot. To make this possible, the dishes in which they are served should be heated before the vegetables are put into them and should be kept hot until put on the table. When a vegetable dish has a cover, the cover should be kept on until the vegetable is served and should be replaced after the first serving, so as to keep the remainder hot.
  137. Because of the possible variety in the preparation of this class of foods, numerous ways of serving them are in practice. When a vegetable is baked in a large baking dish, the dish should be placed on the table and the vegetable served from it either on the plate or in individual dishes. If individual baking dishes are used, these should be set on small plates and one put at each person's place. Boiled or creamed vegetables may be served at the table from a vegetable dish, being put on the plate or in small dishes, or they may be served in individual dishes in the kitchen, and a dish placed at the left of each person's place. When the large dish or the baking dish is placed on the table, it should be placed where the vegetable may be conveniently served by the host if it is to be put on the dinner plate or by the hostess in case it is to be served in individual dishes at the table.
  138. In addition to being served in these ways, vegetables also lend themselves to various attractive methods of serving. For instance, a vegetable prepared with a sauce is frequently served in patty shells, timbale cases, or croustades. When this is done, the case in which the vegetable is served is, as a rule, placed directly on the dinner plate. Potatoes that have been mashed are often forced through a pastry tube either to garnish another dish or to make a dish of potatoes more attractive. For instance, when mashed potatoes are to be served, a solid foundation of the potato may be arranged in the center of a dish and a little of the mashed potato then forced through the tube to make a design over the top. Before being served, the dish should be placed in the oven and the potato browned on top. A little thought on the part of the housewife will enable her to work out many other attractive methods in the serving of this food.

Converted from "8loc310.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
  1. SOUP is a liquid food that is prepared by boiling meat or vegetables, or both, in water and then seasoning and sometimes thickening the liquid that is produced. It is usually served as the first course of a dinner, but it is often included in a light meal, such as luncheon. While some persons regard the making of soup as difficult, nothing is easier when one knows just what is required and how to proceed. The purpose of this Section, therefore, is to acquaint the housewife with the details of soup making, so that she may provide her family with appetizing and nutritious soups that make for both economy and healthfulness.
  2. It is interesting to note the advancement that has been made with this food. The origin of soup, like that of many foods, dates back to practically the beginning of history. However, the first soup known was probably not made with meat. For instance, the mess of pottage for which Esau sold his birthright was soup made of red lentils. Later on meat came to be used as the basis for soup because of the agreeable and appetizing flavor it provides. Then, at one time in France a scarcity of butter and other fats that had been used to produce moistness and richness in foods, brought about such clear soups as bouillon and consommé. These, as well as other liquid foods, found much favor, for about the time they were devised it came to be considered vulgar to chew food. Thus, at various periods, and because of different emergencies, particular kinds of soup have been introduced, until now there are many kinds from which the housewife may choose when she desires a dish that will start a meal in the right way and at the same time appeal to the appetite.
  3. VALUE OF SOUP IN THE MEAL.--Not all persons have the same idea regarding the value of soup as a part of a meal. Some consider it to be of no more value than so much water, claiming that it should be fed to none but children or sick persons who are unable to take solid food. On the other hand, many persons believe that soup contains the very essence of all that is nourishing and sustaining in the foods of which it is made. This difference of opinion is well demonstrated by the ideas that have been advanced concerning this food. Some one has said that soup is to a meal what a portico is to a palace or an overture to an opera, while another person, who evidently does not appreciate this food, has said that soup is the preface to a dinner and that any work really worth while is sufficient in itself and needs no preface. Such opinions, however, must be reconciled if the true value of this food is to be appreciated.
  4. Probably the best way in which to come to a definite conclusion as to the importance of soup is to consider the purposes it serves in a meal.
  5. GENERAL CLASSES OF SOUP.--Soups are named in various ways, according to material, quality, etc.; but the two purposes for which soup is used have led to the placing of the numerous kinds into two general classes. In the first class are grouped those which serve as appetizers, such as bouillon, consommé, and some other broths and clear soups. In the second class are included those eaten for their nutritive effect, such as cream soups, purées, and bisques. From these two classes of soup, the one that will correspond with the rest of the meal and make it balance properly is the one to choose. For instance, a light soup that is merely an appetizer should be served with a heavy dinner, whereas a heavy, highly nutritious soup should be used with a luncheon or a light meal.
  6. ECONOMIC VALUE OF SOUP.--Besides having an important place in the meal of which it forms a part, soup is very often an economy, for it affords the housewife a splendid opportunity to utilize many left-overs. With the French people, who excel in the art of soup making chiefly because of their clever adaptation of seasoning to foods, their pot-au-feu is a national institution and every kitchen has its stock pot. Persons who believe in the strictest food economy use a stock pot, since it permits left-overs to be utilized in an attractive and palatable way. In fact, there is scarcely anything in the way of fish, meat, fowl, vegetables, and cereals that cannot be used in soup making, provided such ingredients are cared for in the proper way. Very often the first glance at the large number of ingredients listed in a soup recipe creates the impression that soup must be a very complicated thing. Such, however, is not the case. In reality, most of the soup ingredients are small quantities of things used for flavoring, and it is by the proper blending of these that appetizing soups are secured.
  7. The two general classes of soup already mentioned permit of numerous methods of classification. For instance, soups are sometimes named from the principal ingredient or an imitation of it, as the names potato soup, beef soup, macaroni soup, mock-turtle soup testify. Again, both stimulating and nutritious soups may be divided into thin and thick soups, thin soups usually being clear, and thick soups, because of their nature, cloudy. When the quality of soups is considered, they are placed in still different classes and are called broth, bisque, consommé, purée, and so on. Another important classification of soups results from the nationality of the people who use them. While soups are classified in other ways, it will be sufficient for all practical purposes if the housewife understands these three principal classes.
  8. CLASSES DENOTING CONSISTENCY.--As has already been pointed out, soups are of only two kinds when their consistency is thought of, namely,
  9. CLASSES DENOTING QUALITY.--When attention is given to the quality of soup, this food divides itself into several varieties, namely, broth, cream soup, bisque, chowder, and purée.
  10. CLASSES TYPICAL OF PARTICULAR COUNTRIES.--Certain kinds of soup have been made so universally by the people of various countries that they have come to be regarded as national dishes and are always thought of as typical of the particular people by whom they are used. Among the best known of these soups are Borsch, a soup much used by the Russian people and made from beets, leeks, and sour cream; Daikan, a Japanese soup in which radishes are the principal ingredient; Kouskous, a soup favored by the people of Abyssinia and made from vegetables; Krishara, a rice soup that finds much favor in India; Lebaba, an Egyptian soup whose chief ingredients are honey, butter, and raisin water; Minestra, an Italian soup in which vegetables are combined; Mulligatawny, an Indian rice soup that is flavored with curry; Potroka, another kind of Russian soup, having giblets for its foundation; Soljinka, an entirely different variety of Russian soup, being made from fish and onions; and Tarhonya, a Hungarian soup containing noodles.
  11. MEANING AND USE OF STOCK.--In order that soup-making processes may be readily grasped by the housewife, she should be thoroughly familiar with what is meant by stock, which forms the foundation of many soups. In looking into the derivation of this term, it will be found that the word stock comes from an Anglo-Saxon word meaning to stick, and that while it has many different uses, the idea of fixedness is expressed in every one of them. As is generally known, a stock of anything means a reserve supply of that thing stored away for future use. When applied to soup, stock is similar in meaning, for it refers to material stored or prepared in such a way that it may be kept for use in the making of certain kinds of soup. In a more definite sense, soup stock may be regarded as a liquid containing the juices and soluble parts of meat, bone, and vegetables, which have been extracted by long, slow cooking and which can be utilized in the making of soups, sauces, and gravies.
  12. Soups in which stock is utilized include all the varieties made from beef, veal, mutton, and poultry. If clear stock is desired for the making of soup, only fresh meat and bones should be used and all material that will discolor the liquid in any way carefully avoided. For ordinary, unclarified soups, the trimmings and bones of roast, steak, or chops and the carcass of fowl can generally be utilized. However, very strongly flavored meat, such as mutton, or the fat from mutton should be used sparingly, if at all, on account of the strong flavor that it imparts.
  13. VARIETIES OF STOCK.--Several kinds of stock are utilized in the making of soup, and the kind to employ depends on the soup desired. In determining the kind of stock required for the foundation of a soup, the housewife may be guided by the following classification
  14. ADDITIONAL USES OF STOCK.--As has already been shown, stock is used principally as a foundation for certain varieties of soup. This material, however, may be utilized in many other ways, being especially valuable in the use of left-over foods. Any bits of meat or fowl that are left over can be made into an appetizing dish by adding thickened stock to them and serving the combination over toast or rice. In fact, a large variety of made dishes can be devised if there is stock on hand to add for flavor. The convenience of a supply of stock will be apparent when it is realized that gravy or sauce for almost any purpose can be made from the contents of the stock pot.
  15. SOUP EXTRACTS.--If a housewife does not have sufficient time to go through the various processes involved in making soup, her family need not be deprived of this article of diet, for there are a number of concentrated meat and vegetable extracts on the market for making soups quickly. The meat extracts are made of the same flavoring material as that which is drawn from meat in the making of stock. Almost all the liquid is evaporated and the result is a thick, dark substance that must be diluted greatly with water to obtain the basis for a soup or a broth. Some of the vegetable extracts, such as Japanese soy and English marmite, are so similar in appearance and taste to the meat extracts as to make it quite difficult to detect any difference. Both varieties of these extracts may be used for sauces and gravies, as well as for soups, but it should be remembered that they are not highly nutritious and are valuable merely for flavoring.
  16. NATURE, USE, AND CARE OF STOCK POT.--Among the utensils used for cooking there is probably none more convenient and useful than the stock pot. It is nothing more or less than a covered crock or pot like that shown in Fig. 1, into which materials that will make a well-flavored stock are put from time to time. From such a supply, stock can be drawn when it is needed for soup; then, when some is taken out, more water and materials may be added to replenish the pot. The stock pot should be made of either enamel or earthenware, since a metal pot of any kind is liable to impart flavor to the food. Likewise, its lid, or cover, should be tight-fitting, for then it will be an excellent utensil in which the materials may be stored until they are to be heated, when they can be poured or dipped into a saucepan or a kettle.
  17. FOOD SUITABLE FOR THE STOCK POT.--Some one has said that nothing edible is out of place in the stock pot, and, to a great extent, this statement is true. Here should be put the bones from the cooked roast, as well as the trimmings cut from it before it went into the oven; the tough ends and bones of beefsteak; the trimmings or bones sent home by the butcher; the carcasses of fowls, together with any remains of stuffing and tough or left-over bits of meat; any left-over vegetables; the remains of the gravy or any unsweetened sauces used for meats or vegetables; the spoonful of left-over hash, stew, or stuffing; a left-over stuffed tomato or pepper; and the water in which rice, macaroni, or certain vegetables have been cooked. Of course, plain water can be used for the liquid, but the water in which such vegetables as cauliflower, carrots, beans, peas, asparagus, celery, and potatoes have been cooked is especially desirable, for, besides imparting flavor to the soup, it adds valuable mineral salts. However, when such things as left-over cereals, rice, macaroni, and green vegetables are to be utilized in soup, they should not be put in the stock pot; rather, they should be added to the stock after it is removed from the pot.
  18. The making of the stock that is used in soup is the most important of the soup-making processes; in fact, these two things--soup and stock--may be regarded, in many instances, as one and the same. The housewife will do well, therefore, to keep in mind that whenever reference is made to the making of soup usually stock making is also involved and meant. Before the actual soup-making processes are taken up, however, the nature of the ingredients required should be well understood; for this reason, suitable meats and vegetables, which are the principal ingredients in soups, are first discussed.
  19. MEAT USED FOR SOUP MAKING.--With the exception of pork, almost every kind of meat, including beef, veal, mutton, lamb, game, and poultry, is used for soup making. Occasionally, ham is employed, but most other forms of pork are seldom used to any extent. When soup stock is made from these meats, they may be cooked separately, or, as a combination is often an improvement over a single variety, several kinds may be combined. For instance, mutton used alone makes a very strongly flavored soup, so that it is usually advisable to combine this kind of meat with another meat that has a less distinctive flavor. On the other hand, veal alone does not have sufficient flavor, so it must be combined with lamb, game, fowl, or some other well-flavored meat.
  20. Certain cuts of meats are preferred to others in the making of soups, because of the difference in their texture. The tender cuts, which are the expensive ones, should not be used for soups, as they do not produce enough flavor. The tough cuts, which come from the muscles that the animal uses constantly and that therefore grow hard and tough, are usually cheaper, but they are more suitable, because they contain the material that makes the best soup. The pieces best adapted to soup making are the shins, the shanks, the lower part of the round, the neck, the flank, the shoulder, the tail, and the brisket. The parts of the animal from which these cuts are taken are clearly shown in Fig. 2. Although beef is obtained from the animal shown, the same cuts come from practically the same places in other animals. Stock made from one of these cuts will be improved if a small amount of the fat of the meat is cooked with it; but to avoid soup that is too greasy, any excess fat that remains after cooking should be carefully removed. The marrow of the shin bone is the best fat for soup making.
  21. VEGETABLES USED FOR SOUP MAKING.--In soup making, the housewife has also a large number of vegetables from which to select, for any vegetable that has a decided flavor may be used. Among those from which soups can be made successfully are cabbage, cauliflower, asparagus, corn, onions, turnips, carrots, parsnips, tomatoes, beans, peas, lentils, salsify, potatoes, spinach, celery, mushrooms, okra, and even sweet potatoes. These vegetables are used for two purposes: to provide flavoring and to form part of the soup itself as well as to furnish flavor. When they are used simply for flavoring, they are cooked until their flavor is obtained and then removed from the stock. When they are to form part of the soup, as well as to impart flavor, they are left in the soup in small pieces or made into a purée and eaten with the soup.
  22. Although the making of stock or soup is a simple process, it must necessarily be a rather long one. The reason for this is that all flavor cannot be drawn from the soup materials unless they are subjected to long, slow cooking at a temperature lower than the boiling point. With this point definitely understood, the actual work of soup making may be taken up.
  23. COOKING MEAT FOR SOUP.--When clear stock is to be made from fresh meat, the required quantity of meat should be cut into small pieces rather than large ones, so as to expose as much of the surface as possible from which the flavor of the meat can be drawn. A little more flavor is obtained and a brown color developed if a small part, perhaps a fourth, of the pieces of meat are first browned in the frying pan. The pieces thus browned, together with the pieces of fresh meat, are put into a kettle and a quart of cold water for each pound of meat is then added.
  24. To obtain the most flavor from meat that is properly prepared, it should be put over a slow fire and allowed to come gradually to the boiling point. As the water approaches the boiling point, a scum consisting of coagulated albumin, blood, and foreign material will begin to rise to the top, but this should be skimmed off at once and the process of skimming continued until no scum remains. When the water begins to boil rapidly, either the fire should be lowered or the kettle should be removed to a cooler part of the stove so that the water will bubble only enough for a very slight motion to be observed. Throughout the cooking, the meat should not be allowed to boil violently nor to cease bubbling entirely.
  25. Although, as has been explained, flavor is drawn from the fibers of meat by boiling it slowly for a long time, the cooking of meat for soup does not extract the nourishment from it to any extent. In reality, the meat itself largely retains its original nutritive value after it has been cooked for soup, although a small quantity of protein is drawn out and much of the fat is removed. This meat should never be wasted; rather, it should be used carefully with materials that will take the place of the flavor that has been cooked from it.
  26. FLAVORING STOCK.--It is the flavoring of stock that indicates real skill in soup making, so this is an extremely important part of the work. In fact, the large number of ingredients found in soup recipes are, as a rule, the various flavorings, which give the distinctive flavor and individuality to a soup. However, the housewife whose larder will not produce all of the many things that may be called for in a recipe should not feel that she must forego making a particular kind of soup. Very often certain spices or certain flavoring materials may be omitted without any appreciable difference, or something that is on hand may be substituted for an ingredient that is lacking.
  27. The flavorings used most for soup include cloves, peppercorns, red, black, and white pepper, paprika, bay leaf, sage, marjoram, thyme, summer savory, tarragon, celery seed, fennel, mint, and rosemary. While all of these are not absolutely necessary, the majority of them may well be kept on the pantry shelf. In addition, a bottle of Worcestershire sauce should be kept on hand. Celery and parsley, which are also much used for flavoring, can usually be purchased fresh, but as they are scarce at times it is advisable to dry some of the leaves during the season when they can be secured, so as to have a supply when they are not in the market. A small amount of lemon peel often improves soup, so some of this should be kept in store. Another group of vegetables that lend themselves admirably to soup flavoring includes leeks, shallots, chives, garlic, and onions, all of which belong to the same family. They must be used judiciously, however, as a strong flavor of any of them is offensive to most persons.
  28. As many of the flavorings used for soup lose their strength when they are exposed to the air, every effort should be made to keep them in good condition. Many of them can be kept an indefinite length of time if they are placed in tightly closed metal boxes or glass jars. Flavorings and spices bought from the grocer or the druggist in paper packages should be transferred to, and enclosed in, a receptacle that will not allow them to deteriorate. If proper attention is given to these materials, the supply will not have to be replenished often; likewise, the cost of a sufficient number to produce the proper flavorings will be very slight.
  29. In the use of any of the flavorings mentioned or the strongly flavored vegetables, care should be taken not to allow any one particular flavor to predominate. Each should be used in such quantity that it will blend well with the others. A very good way in which to fix spices and herbs that are to flavor soup is to tie them in a small piece of cheesecloth and drop the bag thus made into the soup pot. When prepared in this way, they will remain together, so that, while the flavor can be cooked out, they can be more readily removed from the liquid than if they are allowed to spread through the contents of the pot. Salt, which is, of course, always used to season soup, should be added in the proportion of 1 teaspoonful to each quart of liquid.
  30. REMOVING GREASE FROM SOUP.--A greasy soup is always unpalatable.
  31. CLEARING SOUP.--Sometimes it is desired to improve the appearance of soup stock, particularly a small amount of soup that is to be served at a very dainty luncheon or dinner. In order to do this, the stock may be treated by a certain process that will cause it to become clear. After being cleared, it may be served as a thin soup or, if it is heavy enough, it may be made into a clear, sparkling jelly into which many desirable things may be molded for salad or for a dish to accompany a heavy course. Clearing soup is rather extravagant; however, while it does not improve the taste, it does improve the appearance.
  32. THICKENING SOUP.--Although thin, clear soups are preferred by some and are particularly desirable for their stimulating effect, thick soups find much favor when they are used to form a substantial part of a meal. Besides giving consistency to soup, thickening usually improves the flavor, but its chief purpose is to give nutritive value to this food. In fact, whenever a soup is thickened, its food value is increased by the ingredient thus added. For this reason, it is advisable to thicken soups when they are desired for any other purpose than their stimulating effect.
  33. The substance used to thicken soups may be either a starchy material or food or a purée of some food. The starchy materials generally used for this purpose are plain flour, browned flour, corn starch, and arrowroot flour. Any one of these should be moistened with enough cold water to make a mixture that will pour easily, and then added to the hot liquid while the soup is stirred constantly to prevent the formation of lumps. A sufficient amount of this thickening material should be used to make a soup of the consistency of heavy cream.
  34. KEEPING STOCK.--Soup stock, like many other foods, spoils quite readily. Therefore, in order to keep it for at least a few days, it must receive proper attention. At all times, the vessel containing stock should be tightly closed and, especially in warm weather, the stock should be kept as cold as possible. Stock that is heavy enough to solidify into a jellylike consistency when it is cold will keep better than stock that remains liquid. The addition of salt or any spicy flavoring also helps to keep stock from deteriorating, because these materials act as preservatives and prevent the action of bacteria that cause spoiling. Bacteria may be kept from entering soup if, instead of removing the grease, it is allowed to form in a solid cake over the top. No matter which of these precautions is taken to prevent stock from spoiling, it should be heated to boiling point once a day when it is to be kept for several days.
  35. Soup may be correctly served in several different ways, the method to adopt usually depending on the kind of soup. Thin, clear soups are generally served in bouillon cups, as shown in Fig. 3, which may be placed on the table immediately before the family assembles or passed after the members are seated. Heavier soups may be served at the table from a soup tureen, or each person's portion may be served before the family comes to the table. For soups of this kind, the flat soup plate, like that shown in Fig. 4, is found preferable.
  36. To increase the attractiveness of soup and at the same time make it more appetizing and nutritious, various accompaniments and relishes are served with it. When the accompaniment is in the form of crackers, croutons, or bread sticks, they may be passed after the soup is served, or, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4, a few of them may be placed on the bread-and-butter plate at each person's place. The relishes should be passed while the soup is being eaten. Plain whipped cream or whipped cream into which a little mashed pimiento has been stirred adds much to the flavor and appearance of soup when served on the top of any hot or cold variety. Then, too, many soups, especially vegetable soups, are improved in flavor by the addition of a spoonful of grated cheese, which should be sprinkled into the dish at the time of serving. For this purpose, a hard, dry cheese, such as Parmesan, which can often be purchased already grated in bottles, is the most satisfactory.
  37. In summer, clear soups are sometimes served cold, as cold soups are found more desirable for warm weather than hot ones. However, when a soup is intended to be hot, it should be hot when it is ready to be eaten, and every effort should be made to have it in this condition if an appetizing soup is desired. This can be accomplished if the soup is thoroughly heated before it is removed from the stove and the dishes in which it is to be served are warmed before the soup is put into them.
  38. So that the housewife may put into practice the knowledge she has gained about soup making, there are here given recipes for various kinds of soup. As will be observed, these recipes are classified according to the consistency and nature of the soups, all those of one class being placed in the same group. As it is important, too, for the housewife to know how to prepare the various accompaniments and garnishes that are generally served with soup, directions for the making of these are also given and they follow the soup recipes.
  39. In carrying out these recipes, it will be well to note that exactness in fulfilling the requirements and care in working out the details of the recipes are essential. These points cannot be ignored in the making of soup any more than in other parts of cookery, provided successful results and excellent appearance are desired. It is therefore wise to form habits of exactness. For instance, when vegetables are to be cut for soups, they should be cut into pieces of equal size, or, if they are to be diced, they should be cut so that the dice are alike. All the pieces must be of the same thickness in order to insure uniform cooking; if this precaution is not observed, some of the pieces are likely to overcook and fall to pieces before the others are done.
  40. Stock for Clear Soup or Bouillon.--A plain, but well-flavored, beef stock may be made according to the accompanying recipe and used as a basis for any clear soup served as bouillon without the addition of anything else. However, as the addition of rice, barley, chopped macaroni, or any other such food will increase the food value of the soup, any of them may be supplied to produce a more nutritious soup. When this stock is served clear, it should be used as the first course in a comparatively heavy meal.
  41. Household Stock.--If it is desired to make a stock that may be kept on hand constantly and that may be used as a foundation for various kinds of soups, sauces, and gravies, or as a broth for making casserole dishes, household stock will be found very satisfactory. Such stock made in quantity and kept in a sufficiently cool place may be used for several days before it spoils. Since most of the materials used in this stock cannot be put to any other particularly good use, and since the labor required in making it is slight, this may be regarded as an extremely economical stock.
  42. White Stock.--An especially nice broth having a delicate flavor and generally used for special functions when an attractive meal is being served to a large number of persons is made from veal and fowl and known as white stock. If allowed to remain in a cool place, this stock will solidify, and then it may be used as the basis for a jellied meat dish or salad.
  43. Consommé.--One of the most delicious of the thin, clear broths is consommé. This is usually served plain, but any material that will not cloud it, such as finely diced vegetables, green peas, tiny pieces of fowl or meat, may, if desired, be added to it before it is served. As a rule, only a very small quantity of such material is used for each serving.
  44. Tomato Bouillon.--It is possible to make a clear tomato soup without meat stock, but the recipe here given, which is made with meat stock, has the advantage of possessing a better flavor. The tomato in this bouillon lends an agreeable color and flavor and affords a change from the usual clear soup. Cooked rice, macaroni, spaghetti, or vermicelli may be added to tomato bouillon to provide an additional quantity of nutrition and vary the plain soup.
  45. Julienne Soup.--A very good way in which to utilize any small quantities of vegetables that may be in supply but are not sufficient to serve alone is to use them in julienne soup. For soup of this kind, vegetables are often cut into fancy shapes, but this is a more or less wasteful practice and should not be followed, as tiny strips or dice cut finely and carefully are quite as agreeable. The vegetables do not add a large amount of nutriment to this soup, but they introduce into the soup mineral salts that the soups would otherwise not have and they also add a variety of flavor.
  46. Ox-Tail Soup.--The use of ox tails for soup helps to utilize a part of the beef that would ordinarily be wasted, and, as a rule, ox tails are comparatively cheap. Usually the little bits of meat that cook off the bones are allowed to remain in the soup. Variety may be obtained by the addition of different kinds of vegetables.
  47. Mulligatawny Soup.--If a highly seasoned soup is desired, mulligatawny, although not a particularly cheap soup, will be found very satisfactory. The curry powder that is used adds an unusual flavor that is pleasing to many people, but if it is not desired, it may be omitted.
  48. Noodle Soup.--The addition of noodles to soup increases its food value to a considerable extent by providing carbohydrate from the flour and protein from the egg and flour. Noodle soup is a very attractive dish if the noodles are properly made, for then they will not cause the soup to become cloudy when they are put into it. Little difficulty will be experienced if the directions here given for making noodles are followed explicitly.
  49. Vegetable Soup With Noodles.--The combination of noodles and vegetables in soup is a very excellent one, since the vegetables add flavor and the noodles add nutritive value. If the vegetables given in the accompanying recipe cannot be readily obtained, others may be substituted.
  50. Soups classed as cream soups consist of a thin white sauce to which is added a vegetable in the form of a purée or cut into small pieces.
  51. THIN WHITE SAUCE.--The liquid for cream soups should be thin white sauce made entirely of milk or of milk and cream. The flavor of the soup will be improved, however, by using with the milk some meat stock, or the stock that remains from cooking celery, asparagus, or any vegetables that will lend a good flavor to the soup. The recipe here given makes a sauce that may be used for any kind of cream soup.
  52. CREAM-OF-POTATO SOUP.--Because of the large quantity of carbohydrate derived from the potato, cream-of-potato soup is high in food value. For persons who are fond of the flavor of the potato, this makes a delicious soup and one that may be served as the main dish in a light meal.
  53. CREAM-OF-CORN SOUP.--The flavor of corn is excellent in a cream soup, the basis of the soup being milk, butter, and flour. Then, too, the addition of the corn, which is comparatively high in food value, makes a very nutritious soup.
  54. Cream-of-Asparagus Soup.--The asparagus used in cream-of-asparagus soup adds very little besides flavor, but this is of sufficient value to warrant its use. If a pinch of soda is used in asparagus soup, there is less danger of the curdling that sometimes occurs. In making this soup, the asparagus should be combined with the white sauce just before serving.
  55. Cream-of-Spinach Soup.--Although cream-of-spinach soup is not especially attractive in appearance, most persons enjoy its flavor, and the soup serves as another way of adding an iron-containing food to the diet. Children may often be induced to take the soup when they would refuse the spinach as a vegetable.
  56. Cream-of-Pea Soup.--Either dried peas or canned green peas may be used to make cream-of-pea soup. If dried peas are used, they must first be cooked soft enough to pass through a sieve. The flavor is quite different from that of green peas. With the use of green peas, a fair amount of both protein and carbohydrate is added to the soup, but more protein is provided when dried peas are used.
  57. CREAM-OF-TOMATO SOUP.--As a rule, cream-of-tomato soup is popular with every one. Besides being pleasing to the taste, it is comparatively high in food value, because its basis is cream sauce. However, the tomatoes themselves add very little else besides flavor and mineral salts.
  58. CREAM-OF-ONION SOUP.--Many persons who are not fond of onions can often eat soup made of this vegetable. This is probably due to the fact that the browning of the onions before they are used in the soup improves the flavor very decidedly. In addition, this treatment of the onions gives just a little color to the soup.
  59. CHESTNUT PURÉE.--There are many recipes for the use of chestnuts in the making of foods, but probably none is any more popular than that for chestnut purée. The chestnuts develop a light-tan color in the soup. The very large ones should be purchased for this purpose, since chestnuts of ordinary size are very tedious to work with.
  60. SPLIT-PEA PURÉE.--Dried peas or split peas are extremely high in food value, and their addition to soup stock makes a highly nutritious soup of very delightful flavor. Such a purée served in quantity does nicely for the main dish in a light meal. Instead of the peas, dried beans or lentils may be used if they are preferred.
  61. CLAM CHOWDER.--The flavor of clams, like that of oysters and other kinds of sea food, is offensive to some persons, but where this is not the case, clam chowder is a popular dish of high food value. This kind of soup is much used in localities where clams are plentiful.
  62. FISH CHOWDER.--An excellent way in which to utilize a small quantity of fish is afforded by fish chowder. In addition, this dish is quite high in food value, so that when it is served with crackers, little of anything else need be served with it to make an entire meal if it be luncheon or supper. Cod, haddock, or fresh-water fish may be used in the accompanying recipe.
  63. POTATO CHOWDER.--A vegetable mixture such as the one suggested in the accompanying recipe is in reality not a chowder, for this form of soup requires sea food for its basis. However, when it is impossible to procure the sea food, potato chowder does nicely as a change from the usual soup. This chowder differs in no material way from soup stock in this form.
  64. CORN CHOWDER.--The addition of corn to potato chowder adds variety of flavor and makes a delicious mixture of vegetables. This dish is rather high in food value, especially if the soup is served over crackers. A small amount of tomato, although not mentioned in the recipe, may be added to this combination to improve the flavor.
  65. The soup course of a meal is a more or less unattractive one, but it may be improved considerably if some tempting thing in the way of a garnish or an accompaniment is served with it. But whatever is selected to accompany soup should be, in a great measure, a contrast to it in both consistency and color. The reason why a difference in consistency is necessary is due to the nature of soup, which, being liquid in form, is merely swallowed and does not stimulate the flow of the gastric juices by mastication. Therefore, the accompaniment should be something that requires chewing and that will consequently cause the digestive juices, which respond to the mechanical action of chewing, to flow. The garnish may add the color that is needed to make soup attractive. The green and red of olives and radishes or of celery and radishes make a decided contrast, so that when any of these things are served with soup, an appetizing first course is the result. It is not necessary to serve more than one of them, but if celery and radishes or celery, radishes, and olives can be combined in the same relish dish, they become more attractive than when each is served by itself.
  66. RADISHES AND CELERY.--Before radishes and celery are used on the table, whether with soup or some other part of a meal, they should be put into cold water and allowed to stand for some time, so that they will be perfectly crisp when they are served. In the case of radishes, the tops and roots should first be cut from them, and the radishes then scrubbed thoroughly. They may be served without any further treatment, or they may be prepared to resemble flowers, as is shown in Fig. 8. This may be done by peeling the red skin back to show the white inside, and then cutting the sections to look like the petals of a flower. Little difficulty will be experienced in preparing radishes in this artistic way if a sharp knife is used, for, with a little practice, the work can be done quickly and skilfully.
  67. Celery that is to be served with soup may be prepared in two ways, as Fig. 9 illustrates. The stems may be pulled from the stalk and served separately, as in the group on the right, or the stalk may be cut down through the center with a knife into four or more pieces, as shown at the left of the illustration. The first of these methods is not so good as the second, for by it one person gets all of the tender heart and the coarse outside stems are left for all the others. By the second method, every piece consists of some of the heart and some of the outside stems attached to the root and makes a similar serving for each person. Whichever way is adopted, however, the celery should be scrubbed and cleansed thoroughly. This is often a difficult task, because the dirt sticks tightly between the stems. Still, an effort should be made to have the celery entirely free from dirt before it goes to the table. A few tender yellow leaves may be left on the pieces to improve the appearance of the celery.
  68. CRACKERS.--Various kinds of wafers and crackers can be purchased to serve with soup, and the selection, as well as the serving of them, is entirely a matter of individual taste. One point, however, that must not be overlooked is that crackers of any kind must be crisp in order to be appetizing. Dry foods of this sort absorb moisture from the air when they are exposed to it and consequently become tough. As heat drives off this moisture and restores the original crispness, crackers should always be heated before they are served. Their flavor can be improved by toasting them until they are light brown in color.
  69. CROUTONS.--As has already been learned, croutons are small pieces of bread that have been fried or toasted to serve with soup. These are usually made in the form of cubes, or dice, as is shown in the front group in Fig. 10; but they may be cut into triangles, circles, ovals, hearts, or, in fact, any fancy shape, by means of small cutters that can be purchased for such purposes. The bread used for croutons should not be fresh bread, as such bread does not toast nor fry very well; left-over toast, stale bread, or slices of bread that have been cut from the loaf and not eaten are usually found more satisfactory. If the croutons are not made from slices already cut, the bread should be cut into slices 1/4 to 1/2 inch thick, and, after the crusts have been closely trimmed, the slices should be cut into cubes. When the cubes have been obtained, they may be put into a shallow pan and toasted on all sides quickly, placed in a frying basket and browned in deep fat, or put into a frying pan and sautéd in butter. If toast is used, it should merely be cut in the desired shape.
  70. BREAD STICKS.--A soup accompaniment similar in nature to croutons, and known as bread sticks, is made of pieces of bread 1/2 inch wide,
  71. PASTRY STRIPS.--A very appetizing addition to soup may be made by cutting pastry into narrow strips and then baking these strips in the oven until they are brown or frying them in deep fat and draining them. Strips prepared in this way may be served in place of crackers, croutons, or bread sticks, and are considered delicious by those who are fond of pastry. Details regarding pastry are given in another Section.
  72. SOUP FRITTERS.--If an entirely different kind of soup accompaniment from those already mentioned is desired, soup fritters will no doubt find favor. These are made by combining certain ingredients to form a batter and then dropping small amounts of this into hot fat and frying them until they are crisp and brown. The accompanying recipe, provided it is followed carefully, will produce good results.
  73. EGG BALLS.--To serve with a soup that is well flavored but not highly nutritious, egg balls are very satisfactory. In addition to supplying nutrition, these balls are extremely appetizing, and so they greatly improve a course that is often unattractive. Careful attention given to the ingredients and the directions in the accompanying recipe will produce good results.
  74. FORCEMEAT BALLS.--Another delicious form of accompaniment that improves certain soups by adding nutrition is forcemeat balls. These contain various nutritious ingredients combined into small balls, and the balls are then either sautéd or fried in deep fat. They may be placed in the soup tureen or in each person's soup.
  75. AMERICAN FORCEMEAT BALLS.--A simple kind of forcemeat balls may be made according to the accompanying recipe. The meat used may be sausage provided especially for the purpose or some that is left over from a previous meal. If it is not possible to obtain sausage, some other highly seasoned meat, such as ham first ground very fine and then pounded to a pulp, may be substituted.
  75. BEEF PIE.--No housewife need be at a loss for a dish that will tempt her family if she has on hand some left-over pieces of beef, for out of them she may prepare a beef pie, which is always in favor. Cold roast beef makes a very good pie, but it is not necessary that roast beef be used, as left-over steak or even a combination of left-over meats, will do very well.
  76. BEEF HASH.--One of the most satisfactory ways in which to utilize left-over roast beef or corned beef is to cut it into small pieces and make it into a hash. Cold boiled potatoes that remain from a previous meal are usually combined with the beef, and onion is added for flavor. When hash is prepared to resemble an omelet and is garnished with parsley, it makes an attractive dish.
  77. FRIZZLED BEEF.--While the dried beef used in the preparation of frizzled beef is not necessarily a left-over meat, the recipe for this dish is given here, as it is usually served at a meal when the preceding left-over beef dishes are appropriate. Prepared according to this recipe, frizzled beef will be found both nutritious and appetizing.
  77. The manner of carving and serving meat in the home depends to some extent on the kind of meat that is to be served. A way that is favored by some is to carve the meat before it is placed on the table and then serve it according to the style of service used. However, the preferable way is to place the platter containing the meat on the table, together with the plates, in front of the person who is to do the carving and serving.
  78. With the general directions clear in mind, the methods of carving and serving particular kinds of meat may be taken up. Chops, of course, require no carving. By means of a large fork, one should be placed on each person's plate. Steaks and roasts, however, need proper cutting in order that equally good pieces may be served to each person dining. To carve a steak properly, cut it across from side to side so that each piece will contain a portion of the tender part, as well as a share of the tougher part. When cut, the pieces should be strips that are about as wide as the steak is thick. It is often advisable to remove the bone from some steaks before placing them on the table.
  79. Roasts require somewhat more attention than steaks. Before they are placed on the table, any cord used for tying should be cut and removed and all skewers inserted to hold the meat in shape should be pulled out. To carve a roast of any kind, run the fork into the meat deeply enough to hold it firmly and then cut the meat into thin slices across the grain. In the case of a roast leg that contains the bone, begin to carve the meat from the large end, cutting each slice down to the bone and then off so that the bone is left clean. Place round of beef and rolled roasts on the platter so that the tissue side, and not the skin side, is up, and then cut the slices off in a horizontal direction. To carve a rib roast properly, cut it parallel with the ribs and separate the pieces from the backbone.
  80. In addition to the fresh, raw meats that the housewife can procure for her family, there are on the market numerous varieties of raw, smoked, cooked, and partly cooked meats, which are generally included under the term SAUSAGES. These meats are usually highly seasoned, so they keep better than do fresh meats. They should not be overlooked by the housewife, for they help to simplify her labor and at the same time serve to give variety to the family diet. Still, it should be remembered that when meats are made ready for use before they are put on the market, the cost of the labor involved in their manufacture is added to the price charged for them. For this reason, the housewife must be prepared to pay more for meats of this kind than she would pay if she could prepare them at home. However, she need not be concerned regarding their safety, for the government's inspection and regulations prevent any adulteration of them.
  81. Among the numerous varieties of these meats, many of them are typical of certain localities, while others have a national or an international reputation. They also vary in the kind of meat used to make them. Some of them are made from beef, as frankfurters and certain kinds of bologna, while others are made from pork and include the smoked and unsmoked sausages, Liverwurst is made from the livers of certain animals, and may be purchased loose or in skins.
  82. Closely allied to these sausages, although not one of them, is a meat preparation much used in some localities and known as scrapple, or ponhasse. This is prepared by cooking the head of pork, removing the meat from the bones, and chopping it very fine. The pieces of meat are then returned to the broth in which the head was cooked and enough corn meal to thicken the liquid is stirred in. After the whole has boiled sufficiently, it is turned into molds and allowed to harden. When it is cold and hard, it can be cut into slices, which are sautéd in hot fat.
  83. Besides scrapple, numerous other meat preparations, such as meat loaves of various kinds and pickled pig's feet, can usually be obtained in the market. While the thrifty housewife does not make a habit of purchasing meats of this kind regularly, there are times when they are a great convenience and also afford an opportunity to vary the diet.
  84. Up to this point, all frying of foods has been done by sautéing them; that is, frying them quickly in a small amount of fat. The other method of frying, which involves cooking food quickly in deep fat at a temperature of 350 to 400 degrees Fahrenheit, is used so frequently in the preparation of many excellent meat dishes, particularly in the use of left-overs, that specific directions for it are here given, together with several recipes that afford practice in its use. No difficulty will be experienced in applying this method to these recipes or to other recipes if the underlying principles of deep-fat frying are thoroughly understood and the proper utensils for this work are secured.
  85. In the first place, it should be remembered that if foods prepared in this way are properly done, they are not so indigestible as they are oftentimes supposed to be, but that incorrect preparation makes for indigestibility in the finished product. For instance, allowing the food to soak up quantities of fat during the frying is neither economical nor conducive to a digestible dish. To avoid such a condition, it is necessary that the mixture to be fried be made of the proper materials and be prepared in the right way. One of the chief requirements is that the surface of the mixture be properly coated with a protein material, such as egg or egg and milk, before it is put into the fat or that the mixture contain the correct proportion of egg so that its outside surface will accomplish the same purpose. The reason for this requirement is that the protein material is quickly coagulated by the hot fat and thus prevents the entrance of fat into the inside material of the fried food.
  86. The utensils required for deep-fat frying are shown in Fig. 24. They consist of a wire basket and a pan into which the basket will fit. As will be observed, the pan in which the fat is put has an upright metal piece on the side opposite the handle. Over this fits a piece of wire with which the basket is equipped and which is attached to the side opposite the handle of the basket. This arrangement makes it possible to drain the fat from whatever food has been fried without having to hold the basket over the pan.
  87. With the principles of deep-fat frying well in mind, the actual work of frying foods by this method may be taken up. Numerous foods and preparations may be subjected to this form of cookery, but attention is given at this time to only croquettes and timbale cases. Croquettes are small balls or patties usually made of some finely minced food and fried until brown. Timbale cases are shells in which various creamed foods are served. As these two preparations are representative of the various dishes that can be cooked by frying in deep fat, the directions given for these, if carefully mastered, may be applied to many other foods.
  88. FRYING OF CROQUETTES.--After the mixture that is to be fried has been prepared, and while the croquettes are being shaped, have the fat heating in the deep pan, as in Fig. 24. Before the food is immersed, test the temperature of the fat in the manner shown in Fig. 25, to make sure that it is hot enough. To do this, put a 1/2-inch cube of bread in the hot fat and keep it there for 40 seconds. If at the end of this time it is a golden brown, it may be known that the fat is sufficiently hot for any mixture. Be careful to regulate the heat so as to keep the fat as near this temperature as possible, for it should be remembered that each time a cold food is immersed in hot fat, the temperature is lowered. Usually, a few minutes' frying is necessary to assure this regulation of the temperature.
  89. VEAL CROQUETTES.--Veal that remains from a roast after it has been served once can be utilized in no better way than in the making of croquettes; or, if desired, veal may be cooked especially for this purpose. When such croquettes are served with a sauce of any desirable kind, such as white sauce or tomato sauce, or with left-over gravy, no more appetizing dish can be found.
  90. SWEETBREAD CROQUETTES.--An extremely palatable dish can be made by frying in deep fat sweetbreads cut any desirable shape and size. These are usually served with a vegetable, and often a sauce of some kind is served over both.
  91. RICE-AND-MEAT PATTIES.--Sometimes not enough meat remains after a meal to make a tasty dish by itself. In such a case, it should be combined with some other food, especially a starchy one, so as to extend its flavor and produce a dish that approaches nearer a balanced ration than meat alone does. A small amount of any kind of meat combined with rice and the mixture then formed into patties, or croquettes, provides both an appetizing and a nutritious dish.
  92. TIMBALE CASES.--Such foods as creamed sweetbreads, creamed sweetbreads and mushrooms, and other delicate foods that are served in small quantities can be made very attractive by serving them in timbale cases. These are made out of a batter by means of a timbale iron and fried in deep fat until brown. In serving them, place them either on a small plate or on the dinner plate with the rest of the dinner. To make them especially attractive, dip the edge into egg white and then into very finely chopped parsley. Fig. 26 shows creamed sweetbreads served in a timbale case.
  93. To prepare timbale cases, a timbale iron, such as is shown in Fig.
  93. CREAMED OYSTERS.--Another nutritious way in which to prepare oysters and at the same time produce a dish that is pleasing to most persons is to cream them. After being creamed, oysters may be served over toast or in timbale cases.
  94. SCALLOPED OYSTERS.--No food makes a more palatable scalloped dish than oysters. Oysters so prepared are liked by nearly every one, and the ingredients with which they are combined help to give such a dish balance so far as the food substances are concerned. Care should be taken, however, in the baking of scalloped oysters, for they are likely to become tough if they are cooked too long.
  95. FRIED OYSTERS.--Of all the dishes prepared from oysters, fried oysters undoubtedly find favor with the greatest number of persons.
  96. OYSTER PIE.--Baking oysters into a pie is another means of combining a protein food with foods that are high in other food substances. As oyster pie is somewhat hearty, it may be used as the main dish of a heavy meal.
  97. PIGS IN BLANKETS.--When something entirely different in the way of oysters is desired, pigs in blankets should be tried. This is a very good name for the dish given in the accompanying recipe, for the oysters are rolled up in a strip of bacon, which serves as a blanket. They are especially suitable for a light meal, such as luncheon or a dainty lunch that is to be served to company.
  98. OYSTER FRITTERS.--Variety may also be secured in the use of oysters by making oyster fritters. When such fritters are nicely browned and served with an appetizing sauce, an attractive as well as a tasty dish is the result.
  99. NATURE AND DIGESTIBILITY OF CLAMS.--Clams are bivalves similar to oysters in both form and composition. Because of the similarity in composition, they are utilized in much the same ways as oysters, being used extensively for food in parts of the country where the supply is large. There are numerous varieties of clams, and some of them differ slightly from each other in appearance, color, and flavor. Preference for the different varieties is largely a matter of individual taste.
  100. OPENING CLAMS.--If clams are to be opened in the home, the method illustrated in Fig. 30 may be employed. First wash the clams to remove the sand, and then place a clam on a hard surface so that the pointed edge is up. Insert the thin edge of a knife into the very slight groove between the shells, or valves, and with a heavy utensil of some kind strike the top of the knife several times so as to separate the valves. Then, as in opening oysters, spread the shells apart, as shown, and loosen the clam from the shell it adheres to.
  101. RAW CLAMS.--Like oysters, raw clams are generally served as a cocktail, or an appetizer, at the beginning of a meal. If they are to be served in the half shell, place them in a dish of cracked ice; if they are to be served without the shells, place the required number in a stemmed glass that is set in a dish of cracked ice. In either case, lemon or a suitable sauce, or both, should be supplied.
  102. STEAMED CLAMS.--Steaming is the method generally adopted when clams in large numbers are cooked for a "clam bake," but there is no reason why it cannot be used by the housewife when she wishes to cook only enough for her family. When large quantities are to be steamed, use is generally made of a steamer, but the housewife will find that she can steam a few clams very satisfactorily in a saucepan or a similar vessel.
  103. BAKED CLAMS.--Another very appetizing way in which to prepare clams is to combine them with bread crumbs, season them well, and then bake them until they are well browned. Select several good-sized clams for each person to be served. Scrub the shells well and open them. Remove the clams and chop them into small pieces. To each cupful of chopped clams, add 2 cupfuls of buttered bread crumbs, 1 tablespoonful of chopped parsley, 1 tablespoonful of chopped pimiento, and 1 tablespoonful of onion juice. Season the mixture with salt and pepper and fill the shells with it. Place these in a shallow pan and bake in a very hot oven until the crumbs are well browned on top. Serve hot.
  104. FRIED CLAMS.--As oysters make a very desirable dish when fried in deep fat, so clams may be treated in this way, too. Remove the desired number of clams from the shells, wash them thoroughly, and dry them on a clean towel. Dip them into beaten egg, and finally into the crumbs. Fry in deep fat until they are a golden brown. Serve with slices of lemon.
  105. NATURE OF SCALLOPS.--Scallops, which are another form of bivalves, are less commonly used for food than oysters and clams. Scalloped dishes get their name from the fact that scallop shells were originally used for their preparation. Not all of the scallop is used for food; merely the heavy muscle that holds the two shells together is edible. Scallops are slightly higher in protein than oysters and clams and they also have a higher food value than these two mollusks. The most common method of preparation for scallops is to fry them, but they may also be baked in the shells.
  106. FRIED SCALLOPS.--If scallops are properly fried, they make an appetizing dish. As they are a rather bland food, a sauce of some kind, preferably a sour one, is generally served with them.
  107. BAKED SCALLOPS.--If a tasty as well as a slightly unusual dish is desired to give variety to the diet, baked scallops will undoubtedly find favor. As shown in the accompanying recipe, mushrooms are one of the ingredients in baked scallops and these not only provide additional material, but improve the flavor.
  108. The shell fish, LOBSTERS, CRABS, and SHRIMP, come under the head of crustaceans; that is, animals consisting of jointed sections, each of which is covered with a hard shell. Their flesh is similar in composition to that of other fish, but it is tougher and harder to digest. However, it is popular because of its unique and delicate flavor. In fact, whenever these varieties of fish can be obtained along the seacoast or within a reasonable distance from the place where they are caught, they are considered a delicacy. If they can be shipped alive to any point, they are perfectly safe to use, although quite high in price because of their perishable nature.
  109. Unless such shell fish can be procured alive in the markets, the use of a good brand of any of them canned is recommended. In fact, canned lobster, crab, and shrimp are very satisfactory and may be substituted for any of the fresh cooked varieties in the recipes that follow. It is true that some persons object to canned food because ptomaine poisoning sometimes results, but it has been found that ptomaine poisoning is more liable to result from eating these foods when they are bought in the market in poor condition than when they are secured in canned form. Care must be exercised, however, whenever use is made of canned food of any kind. Upon opening a can of any of these varieties of fish, the entire contents should be removed from the can at once and used as soon as possible. It must be remembered that the ptomaine poisoning that is sometimes caused by eating canned foods is not due to the fact that the foods come in tin cans, but that they are allowed to stand in the cans after they are opened. Upon their being exposed to the air, putrefaction sets in and causes the harmful effect.
  110. Lobsters, crabs, and shrimp are very similar in composition, shrimp being slightly higher in protein and total food value than the others.
  111. DISTINGUISHING FEATURES.--Of these three types of sea food, lobsters are perhaps the most popular. They are found along the North
  112. PRELIMINARY PREPARATION.--To prepare a lobster, which should be alive, grasp it firmly by the back, as shown in Fig. 32, plunge it quickly, head first, into a kettle of rapidly boiling water, and then submerge the rest of the body. Be sure to have a sufficient amount of water to cover the lobster completely. Boil rapidly for 5 minutes; then lower the flame or remove to a cooler part of the stove and cook slowly for 1/2 hour. Remove from the water and allow to cool.
  113. REMOVING LOBSTER FROM THE SHELL.--The majority of the dishes made from lobster require that the flesh be removed from the shell. To do this, first pull off the two large claws and the four pairs of small claws, as shown in Fig. 33, and break the tail from the body. Then with scissors, as in Fig. 34, cut a single slit the entire length of the shell covering the under part of the tail and remove the flesh inside the tail in a whole, large piece, as shown in Fig. 35. The intestinal tract, which can be readily observed, will be found embedded in this piece and running the entire length. Slash the flesh and remove it. Next remove the flesh of the body from the shell, retaining only that part which appears to be fibrous, like the flesh of the tail. The stomach, which is called "the lady" because its inside appearance closely resembles a lady sitting in a chair, should not be removed from the shell. However, care should be taken to obtain all the flesh surrounding the bones in the bony part of the lobster. The coral substance, that is, the roe of the lobster, should also be removed, as it can be used for a garnish.
  114. LOBSTER COCKTAIL.--Practically all varieties of shell fish make most satisfactory cocktails, and lobster is no exception. To make a lobster cocktail, shred or cut into small pieces the flesh of a lobster that has been prepared according to the directions just given. Chill the shreds or pieces and then serve them in stemmed cocktail glasses with any desirable cocktail sauce.
  115. SCALLOPED LOBSTER.--Persons who care for the flavor of lobster will find scalloped lobster a very attractive dish. When prepared in this way, it is suitable either for luncheon or for dinner.
  116. DEVILED LOBSTER.--A dish that is delicious and at the same time very attractive is deviled lobster. After removing the flesh from the shell, the shell should be cleaned thoroughly, as it is to be used as a receptacle in which to put the lobster mixture for baking. When removed from the oven, this dish can be made more attractive by garnishing it with the lobster claws and tail.
  117. LOBSTER À LA NEWBURG.--When lobster à la Newburg is mentioned, one naturally thinks of a chafing dish, for this is one of the dishes that is very often made in a chafing dish and served at small social gatherings. However, it can be made just as satisfactorily on the kitchen stove and is a dish suitable for a home luncheon or small dinner.
  118. LOBSTER CROQUETTES.--Probably the most attractive dish that can be made out of lobster is the one explained in the accompanying recipe. As this is artistically garnished, and at the same time extremely appetizing, it is suitable for a meal that is intended to be very nice, such as a dainty luncheon. If the elaborate garnishing here suggested is not desired, the croquettes may be served with merely a suitable sauce.
  119. NATURE OF CRABS.--Numerous varieties of crabs are obtained along the seashores of the United States, and most of them measure not more than 5 or 6 inches across. Shell fish in this form are used for food both before the shells have hardened, when they are known as soft-shelled crabs, and after the shells have grown hard, when they are called hard-shelled crabs. To be at their best, crabs should be as heavy as lobsters in proportion to their size. Their flesh should be firm and stiff and their eyes should be bright. The male crab has a smaller body and longer claws than the female. In food value, crabs are quite similar to lobsters.
  120. PRELIMINARY PREPARATION.--Before either soft-shelled or hard-shelled crabs can be used as food, a certain amount of preparation is necessary. In the case of hard-shelled crabs, plunge them alive into hot water, allow them to come to the boiling point, and cook slowly for 1/2 hour. It is a good plan to add 1 tablespoonful of salt for each crab that is being boiled. While the crabs are cooking, remove the scum that rises to the top. When they are sufficiently cooked, open the shells and take out the meat, being careful to remove all the meat from the claws.
  121. CRAB-FLAKE COCKTAIL.--Crab meat is used for cocktails in the same way as oysters, clams, and lobster. In fact, no better appetizer to serve at the beginning of a meal can be found. To make crab-flake cocktail, remove the meat from the shells of cooked hard-shelled crabs in the way just explained, and chill it. Then place it in stemmed glasses and serve with cocktail sauce.
  122. DEVILED CRABS.--Variety in the cooking of hard-shelled crabs can be secured by deviling them according to the accompanying directions. As will be observed, this is done in practically the same way that lobster is deviled.
  123. FRIED SOFT-SHELLED CRABS.--After soft-shelled crabs are prepared in the manner explained in Art. 120, they are usually fried in deep fat.
  124. CREAMED CRAB MEAT.--When the meat of hard-shelled crabs is creamed, it makes a very dainty dish, especially if it is served over toast or in timbale cases. To give a touch of color and at the same time add a little flavor, chopped pimiento is generally added.
  125. NATURE OF SHRIMP.--Shrimp are similar to crabs and lobsters in composition and in the methods of preparation. They differ considerably in appearance, however, and are smaller in size. When alive, shrimp are a mottled greenish color, but upon being dropped into boiling-hot water they turn red. When they have cooked sufficiently, the meat, which is very delicious, may be easily removed from the shells. After the meat of shrimp is thus prepared, it may be used cold in a salad or a cocktail or it may be utilized in a number of ways for hot dishes. Very often a chafing dish is used in the preparation of such dishes, but this utensil is not necessary, as they may be cooked in an ordinary utensil on a stove of any kind.
  126. CREAMED SHRIMP.--The usual way of preparing shrimp is to cook it with mushrooms and then serve it over toast, or, as shown in Fig. 37, in timbale cases. Creamed shrimp is dainty in appearance, pleasing to the taste, and highly nutritious.
  127. SHRIMP À LA SALLE.--Shrimp also makes an appetizing and attractive dish when combined with tomato and green pepper. The accompanying recipe gives directions for the preparation of such a dish, which is called shrimp à La Salle.
  128. The various kinds of shell fish are served so frequently as cocktails that cocktail sauces are much in demand. The foundation of these sauces is always tomato catsup, but the ingredients used for seasoning usually vary according to individual taste. The following recipes make amounts sufficient for one serving

Converted from "8loc410.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
  1. So much variety exists among salads that it is somewhat difficult to give a comprehensive definition of this class of foods. In general, however, salads may be considered as a dish of green herbs or vegetables, sometimes cooked, and usually chopped or sliced, sometimes mixed with fruit or with cooked and chopped cold meat, fish, etc., and generally served with a dressing. For the most part, salads take their name from their chief ingredient, as, for instance, chicken salad, tomato salad, pineapple salad, etc. Just what place salads have in the meal depends on the salad itself. A high-protein salad, such as lobster salad, should take the place of the meat course, whereas, a light salad of vegetables or fruits may be used as an additional course.
  2. IMPORTANCE OF SALADS. Salads are often considered to be a dish of little importance; that is, something that may be left out or added to a meal without affecting it to any great extent. While this may be the case in a meal that is composed of a sufficient variety of foods, salads have a definite place in meals as they are planned in the majority of households. Often there is a tendency to limit green vegetables or fresh fruits in the diet, but if the members of a family are to be fed an ideal diet it is extremely important that some of these foods enter into each day's meals, a fact that is often overlooked. There is no more effective nor appetizing way in which to include them in a meal than in the serving of salads. In addition, salads make a strong appeal to the appetite and at the same time are beneficial so far as the health of the family is concerned.
  3. PURPOSES OF SALADS.--Because of the wide variety of salads and the large number of ingredients from which a selection may be made in their preparation, salads can be used for various purposes. The housewife who gives much attention to the artistic side of the serving of food in her home will often use a salad to carry out a color scheme in her meal. This is, of course, the least valuable use that salads have, but it is a point that should not be overlooked. The chief purpose of salads in a meal is to provide something that the rest of the foods served in the meal lack.
  4. SELECTION OF SALADS.--Although salads, through their variety, offer the housewife an opportunity to vary her meals, they require a little attention as to their selection if a properly balanced meal is to be the result. Salads that are high in food value or contain ingredients similar to those found in the other dishes served in the meal, should be avoided with dinners or with other heavy meals. For instance, a fish or a meat salad should not be served with a dinner, for it would supply a quantity of protein to a meal that is already sufficiently high in this food substance because of the fact that meat also is included. Such a salad, however, has a place in a very light luncheon or a supper, for it helps to balance such a meal. The correct salad to serve with a dinner that contains a number of heavy dishes is a vegetable salad, if enough vegetables are not already included, or a fruit salad, if the dessert does not consist of fruit. In case a fruit salad is selected, it is often made to serve for both the salad and the dessert course.
  5. SALAD ACCOMPANIMENTS.--In addition to the ingredients used in the preparation of salads, dressings usually form an important part. These vary greatly as to ingredients and consequently as to composition, but most of them contain considerable fat and therefore increase the food value of the salad. Then, too, an accompaniment of some kind is generally served with salads to make them more attractive and more pleasing to the taste. This may be a wafer or a cracker of some description or a small sandwich made of bread cut into thin slices and merely buttered or buttered and then spread with a filling of some sort. Such accompaniments, of course, are not a necessity, but they add enough to the salad to warrant their use.
  6. The composition, as well as the total food value, of salads depends entirely on the ingredients of which they are composed. With an understanding of the composition of the ingredients used in salads, the housewife will be able to judge fairly accurately whether the salad is low, medium, or high in food value, and whether it is high in protein, fat, or carbohydrate. This matter is important, and should receive consideration from all who prepare this class of food.
  7. PROTEIN IN SALADS.--As may be expected, salads that are high in protein have for their basis, or contain, such ingredients as meat, fish, fowl, cheese, eggs, nuts, or dried beans. The amount of protein that such a salad contains naturally varies with the quantity of high-protein food that is used. For instance, a salad that has hard-cooked eggs for its foundation contains considerable protein, but one in which a slice or two of hard-cooked egg is used for a garnish cannot be said to be a high-protein salad.
  8. FAT IN SALADS.--The fat in salads is more often included as a part of the dressing than in any other way, but the quantity introduced may be very large. A French dressing or a mayonnaise dressing, as a rule, contains a sufficient proportion of some kind of oil to make the salad in which it is used somewhat high in fat. In fact, salads are often used as a means of introducing fat into a meal, and whenever this is done they should be considered as one of the dishes that supply energy-producing food material to the meals in which they are served.
  9. CARBOHYDRATE IN SALADS.--For the most part, salads do not contain carbohydrate in any quantity. If fruits are used, the salad will, of course, contain a certain amount of sugar. Salads in which potatoes, peas, beets, and other vegetables are used also contain starch or sugar in varying quantities. However, with the exception of potato salad, salads are probably never taken as a source of carbohydrate.
  10. MINERAL SALTS IN SALADS.--In the majority of salads, mineral salts are an important ingredient. Meat and fish salads are the only ones in which the mineral salts are not especially desirable, but they can be improved in this respect if a certain amount of vegetables are mixed with them. Green-vegetable salads are the most valuable sources of mineral salts, and fruit salads come next. In addition, these two varieties of salads contain vitamines, which are substances necessary to maintain health. Cheese and egg salads, which are high-protein salads, are also valuable for the vitamines they supply.
  11. CELLULOSE IN SALADS.--Vegetable and fruit salads serve to supply cellulose in the diet. Unless the meals contain sufficient cellulose in some other form, the use of such salads is an excellent way in which to introduce this material. Of course, the salads composed of foods high in cellulose are lower in food value than others, but the salad dressing usually helps to make up for this deficiency.
  12. VARIETY IN SALAD INGREDIENTS.--One of the advantages of salads is that the ingredients from which they can be made are large in number. In fact, almost any cooked or raw fruit or vegetable, or any meat, fowl, or fish, whether cooked expressly for this purpose or left over from a previous meal, may be utilized in the making of salads. Canned foods of these varieties may also be used to advantage for salads during the winter when fresh foods are expensive and difficult to procure. The idea that such foods cannot be used is wrong.
  13. As far as meats are concerned, they are not used so extensively in salads as are fruits and vegetables. Often, however, veal or pork may be used to increase the quantity of material needed to make certain salads, such as chicken salad. Canned fish or fish freshly cooked makes appetizing salads, and if there is not a sufficient quantity of one kind on hand, another may be added without impairing the quality of the salad.
  14. As has already been stated, almost any vegetable, raw, canned, or freshly cooked, can be used in the making of salads. In addition, these vegetables may be combined in almost any way. Small amounts of two, three, four, or more vegetables may be combined with an appetizing salad dressing and served as a luncheon or dinner salad. If no definite recipe is followed but whatever material that happens to be on hand is utilized, the result is not only an appetizing salad, but a saving of vegetables that might otherwise be wasted.
  15. Fruits, both canned and raw, are largely used in the making of salads. As with vegetables, almost any combination of them makes a delicious salad when served with the proper dressing. Thus, a slice of pineapple, a canned peach or two, or a few spoonfuls of cherries may be added to grapefruit, oranges, bananas, or whatever fruit may happen to be most convenient or easy to procure and served with the salad dressing that is preferred. Vegetables are seldom used with fruits, celery being the only one that is ever employed in this way. On the other hand, nuts are much used with fruits, vegetables, meats, and fish in the making of salads and any variety may be utilized.
  16. SALAD GARNISHES.--The garnishing of salads, while it may seem to be an unimportant part of the preparation of this food, is really a matter that demands considerable attention. Lettuce is used oftenest for this purpose, but almost any edible green, such as endive, watercress, etc., makes an excellent garnish. Generally when lettuce is the garnish, the leaves are used whole, but if they are not in good condition for garnishing or if use is to be made of the coarse outside leaves of the stalks, they may be arranged in a pile, rolled tight, and then, as shown in Fig. 1, cut with a sharp knife into narrow strips. Lettuce prepared in this way is said to be shredded, and a bed of it makes a very attractive garnish for many kinds of salad. Among the other foods used as a garnish are certain vegetables that give a contrast in color, such as pimiento, green peppers, radishes, and olives. Slices of hard-cooked eggs or the yolks of eggs forced through a ricer likewise offer a touch of attractive color.
  17. NATURE OF SALAD DRESSINGS.--When a salad is properly made, a salad dressing of some kind is usually added to the ingredients that are selected for the salad. This dressing generally has for its chief ingredient a salad oil of some kind, many satisfactory varieties of which are to be found on the market. Olive oil has always been the most popular oil used for this purpose, and in many respects it is the most desirable. It can be obtained in several grades, the price varying with the excellence of the quality. The best grades have a yellowish color, the poorest ones are somewhat green, and those of medium quality shade between these two colors. The best grades are also clear, while the poorer ones are usually cloudy, the better the quality the less cloudy the oil. Besides olive oil, however, there are oils made of cottonseed, corn, and nuts. Many of these products are cheaper than olive oil and are almost, if not quite, as satisfactory. In combination with the oil that is used for salad dressing, there is always an acid of some kind, such as vinegar or lemon juice. To these ingredients are added spices and flavoring. Such a dressing is prepared without cooking, the ingredients being combined by proper mixing or beating.
  18. Another kind of dressing that is much used is known as boiled salad dressing. Its ingredients are similar to those used in the uncooked salad dressing, but usually less fat is employed and eggs alone or eggs and some starchy material are used for thickening.
  19. Because of the large variety of ingredients that may be used in the making of salads, it is usually possible to make the salad correspond properly with the other dishes in the meal. This is a little more difficult to accomplish when left-over materials are used in salads, but, even in this event, the addition of ingredients that will make the salad more nearly approach what must be supplied is usually possible. If the meal is to be a light one and the salad is to serve as the principal dish, it should be sufficiently heavy and contain enough food value to serve the purpose for which it is intended. It should be decided on first, and then the rest of the dishes should be planned to correspond with the salad.
  20. Another point that should not be neglected in selecting a salad is that it should be a contrast to the rest of the meal as far as flavor is concerned. While several foods acid in flavor do not necessarily unbalance a meal so far as food substances and food value are concerned, they provide too much of the same flavor to be agreeable to most persons. For instance, if the meal contains an acid soup, such as tomato, and a vegetable with a sour dressing, such as beets, then a salad that is also acid will be likely to add more of a sour flavor than the majority of persons desire.
  21. CONDITION OF SALAD INGREDIENTS.--When the kind of salad to be served is decided on, the selection and preparation of the materials are the next matters to receive attention. Very often materials that are on hand are utilized in this way, but if it is possible to select the ingredients expressly for the salad, they should be very carefully chosen. Any kind of salad, but particularly a vegetable or a fruit salad, becomes much more attractive if it is made with ingredients that are in good condition and that are attractive in appearance. They should therefore be fresh and crisp and never mushy, wilted, nor limp. Of course, this does not mean that material that is slightly unattractive must be discarded, for it can usually be prepared so that it can be utilized in some way. However, much of the deterioration of salad ingredients before they are used can be avoided if proper attention is given to them after they come into the home. Without doubt, the best way in which to keep radishes, celery, parsley, watercress, and other greens that are much used in salads is to wrap them loosely in a moist cloth as soon as they are received in the home and then put them in a cool place. Small muslin or linen bags having a draw-string in the top are very good for this purpose, but they are not a necessity, for old napkins or small pieces of worn cloth will do very well.
  22. CLEANING AND FRESHENING SALAD INGREDIENTS.--In the making of a salad, the cleaning of the ingredients used is a very important part of the work. While nothing should be wasted in the process of preparation, decayed or discolored leaves, stems, or parts of fruits and vegetables should, of course, be removed. Every lettuce leaf and every part of other salad vegetables should be looked over carefully and washed separately in cold water. To accomplish this, the stalks or leaves must be taken apart after the root is cut off. Then, before they are used, they should be examined carefully again in order to make sure that no small bugs nor worms and no dirt remain on them. Such vegetables will become crisp if they are allowed to remain in cold water long enough to bring back their natural freshness. A little ice added to the water helps to accomplish this more quickly. It should be remembered, however that lettuce leaves bruise and break easily and so must be handled carefully if the best appearance is desired.
  23. When cucumbers are to be used for salad, they should be peeled and put immediately into cold water to become crisp, or they may first be sliced or diced and then put into the cold water. They should never be allowed to stand for any length of time in salt water. If it is desired to season them with salt, a little may be added to the water in which they are made crisp, but it will also be necessary to add ice to make the water as cold as possible. The old idea that soaking cucumbers in salted water removes something injurious has been proved to be untrue, and they are just as satisfactory, so far as their flavor and condition are concerned, when they are not subjected to this treatment. Radishes, celery, and cabbage may be made crisp in the same way as are cucumbers and lettuce.
  24. PREPARING FRUITS FOR SALADS.--After fruits have been carefully cleaned, they are ready to be peeled and cut into pieces of the size desired for the salad. An effort should always be made to have the pieces equal in size, similar in shape, and not too small. They should be peeled in an economical way, but at the same time should be prepared as attractively as possible.
  25. In the preparation of oranges for a salad, the fruit is peeled as if it were an apple, the peeling being cut deeply enough to remove the skin that covers the sections. After the entire orange is peeled, the contents of each section should be removed by passing a sharp knife as closely as possible to the skin between the sections and then taking out the pulp without any of this skin. The sections may then be used whole or cut into pieces.
  26. When fruits of any kind have been prepared for salad and cannot be used at once, they may be kept from wilting and discoloring if they are put where they will keep cool and are sprinkled with a little lemon juice that is slightly diluted with water. Before the salad materials are mixed with the salad dressing, however, all juices or liquid of any kind should be carefully drained from them, for these will dilute the dressing and produce a salad that is less appetizing in both appearance and flavor.
  27. PREPARING NUTS FOR SALADS.--When nuts are to be used in a salad, they should never be ground in a grinder; rather, they should be chopped or cut into small pieces with a knife. After being so prepared, they should be added to the salad just before it is put on the table. This is a matter that should not be overlooked, for if the salad is allowed to stand very long after the nuts are added they will discolor the dressing and cause the salad to become dark and gray looking.
  28. MARINATING SALAD INGREDIENTS.--To improve the flavor of such salads as chicken, veal, lobster, or crab, the ingredients are usually marinated with a sour dressing of some description before the salad dressing is added. As is explained in Essentials of Cookery, Part 2, marinating involves the seasoning of meat or fish by means of vinegar or French dressing. The preparation used to marinate salad ingredients may be plain vinegar to which salt and pepper are added, or it may be a French dressing, which is prepared by mixing vinegar, olive oil, salt, and pepper in the proper proportions. Whichever preparation is used should be poured over the materials after they are cut or prepared for the salad, and only enough to moisten each piece slightly should be used. The ingredients should then be carefully mixed with the dressing to avoid breaking or crushing them and should be allowed to stand in a cold place for a few minutes. Then they should be drained so that none of the material used to marinate them remains on the salad when the other dressing is added. With this done, the salad is ready for whatever salad dressing is to be used.
  29. Potato salad and salads containing such vegetables as carrots, peas, string beans, etc. are also improved by being marinated in the same way as salads made of meat, fowl, and fish. This sort of preparation involves a little more work, it is true, but it usually produces such gratifying results that it justifies the expenditure of the extra effort. In the first place, a slightly smaller amount of salad dressing will be required when the ingredients are marinated and, in addition, a better looking dish can be made, for the dressing need not be mixed with the salad but merely placed on top.
  30. In case the housewife prefers not to take the time nor the trouble to marinate a salad, she should at least mix thoroughly with salt and pepper the ingredients that require seasoning. The fact that a salad should be a well and highly seasoned dish must never be overlooked. As can be readily understood, a bland salad without character is never so appetizing as one that is crisp, fresh, well made, and properly seasoned.
  31. Several different ways of serving salads are in practice. Perhaps the most convenient method of serving this dish is to prepare individual portions of it on salad plates in the kitchen and then set these on the table at each person's place. If a simple table service is followed, the salad may be put on the table at the same time as the rest of the meal. The correct position for the salad plate is at the left-hand side of the dinner plate and just a little nearer to the edge of the table than the bread-and-butter plate. The plates on which salad is served should be large enough to prevent the difficulty in eating that would be experienced if the plate were a trifle small. It should therefore be remembered that the salad plate is the next larger in size to the bread-and-butter plate.
  32. In case individual salads are to be prepared, the plate should first be garnished with whatever vegetable green is selected for this purpose. If lettuce is to be used, a single leaf, several very small center leaves, or a small quantity of shredded lettuce will be sufficient, for a great deal of garnish is never desirable. In case the leaves are very large, one may be divided in half and each part utilized. Then the salad ingredients, which have already been combined, should be piled in a neat heap on top of the garnish either with or without the salad dressing. If the salad dressing is not mixed with the materials, a spoonful or two of it should be placed on top of them. Sometimes, for the effect of color, additional garnish of some kind is used. For a vegetable or a meat salad, this may be egg yolk put through a sieve, slices of hard-cooked eggs, olives or radishes cut in fancy shapes, or strips of pimiento; and for fruit salad, it may be cherries or colored fruits cut into various fancy shapes.
  33. Another method of serving this dish is to place the entire salad on a rather large, deep plate, such as a chop plate or a regular salad dish, and then serve it at the table whenever it is desired. When this is done, the dish that is used should be well garnished with a bed of vegetable green in the same way that a small individual plate is garnished. Then the salad ingredients should be nicely arranged on this bed, and the dressing, if it has not already been mixed with them, should be poured over the whole. In serving salad in this way, there is much more chance of arranging the ingredients symmetrically and garnishing the salad attractively than when it is served on small plates. The large plate containing the salad, together with the small salad plates, should be placed before the hostess or whoever is to serve the salad. When it is served, a leaf of the lettuce or other green used for garnishing should first be put on each salad plate and the salad should be served on this. A large fork and a large spoon are needed when salad is served in this manner.
  34. Still another, way of serving salad, and perhaps a more attractive one than either of those already described, consists in arranging the ingredients in a salad bowl, placing this on the table, and serving from the bowl to the salad plates. In this method, a French dressing is generally used, and this is often mixed at the table and added to the salad just before it is put on the small plates. Such a salad can be made very attractive, and it should be remembered above all things that the appearance of a salad is its great asset until it is eaten and that an artistically made salad always helps to make the meal more satisfactory.
  35. In a dinner, the salad is generally served as a separate course, but in such a meal as luncheon it may be used as the main dish. If it is used as a separate course, it should be served immediately after the dinner course has been removed from the table. The salad plate should be placed directly before the person served. Forks especially designed with a wide prong on one side and known as salad forks are the right type of fork to serve with this dish, but if none are available ordinary table forks of a small size may be used. It should be remembered that the salad should not be cut with the knife at the table, but should be eaten entirely with the fork.
  36. As has been implied, various salad dressings may be made to serve with salads. The kind of dressing to select depends both on the variety of salad served and on the personal preference of those to whom it is served. Some of these contain only a few ingredients and are comparatively simple to make, while others are complex and involve considerable work in their making. Whether simple or elaborate, however, the salad dressing should be carefully chosen, so that it will blend well with the ingredients of the salad with which it is used.
  37. FRENCH DRESSING.--A dressing that is very simply made and that can probably be used with a greater variety of salads than any other is
  38. Sometimes a more highly seasoned French dressing is desired. In such an event, there should be beaten into the dressing just described the following ingredients
  39. MAYONNAISE DRESSING.--Although mayonnaise dressing is prepared without the application of heat, it is not one of the simplest dressings to prepare. It meets with much favor, being used almost as extensively as French dressing, but it is perhaps less desirable with fruit salads than with others. It is also much used as a basis for numerous other dressings. Since it requires considerable time for its preparation, a wise plan is to make more than enough for one meal. However, it should not be made in large quantities, for the oil separates from the remainder of the ingredients if it is allowed to stand too long. If it is thoroughly beaten and kept extremely cold, it may perhaps keep for a week, but keeping it longer than that is not advisable. Before serving, it may be thinned by beating either sweet or sour cream into it. It may be made fluffy and light and its quantity may be increased by beating whipped cream into it.
  40. COOKED MAYONNAISE.--A dressing that is very similar both in texture and taste to the mayonnaise just explained and perhaps a little easier to make is known as cooked mayonnaise. This dressing, as will be noted from the accompanying recipe, may be made in larger quantities than the uncooked mayonnaise.
  41. THOUSAND ISLAND DRESSING.--By using the cooked or the uncooked mayonnaise dressing as a basis and adding to it the ingredients listed here, a very delightful salad dressing, called Thousand Island dressing, is the result. All the ingredients need not be added if it is inconvenient to do so, still the dressing is better when they are all used. This dressing is particularly good when served with plain lettuce salad, with lettuce and tomatoes, with lettuce, tomatoes, and cucumbers, or with any other plain-vegetable salad.
  42. BOILED SALAD DRESSING.--Although boiled salad dressing is not so great a favorite as the uncooked mayonnaise dressing, it has the advantage of being less expensive. Then, too, it is one of the dressings that may be made without oil, and so finds favor with those to whom oil is not agreeable. However, oil may be substituted for the butter that is given in the recipe. It will be noted that the preparation of this dressing is similar to that of a custard with the addition of flour. Since the flour requires longer cooking than the eggs, they are added last so that there will be no danger of overcooking them. If the dressing curdles, it may be known that the eggs have cooked too long, but this condition may be remedied by placing the pan containing the dressing in a pan of cold water as soon as the curdling is observed and then beating vigorously with a rotary beater.
  43. SOUR-CREAM DRESSING.--Sour-cream dressing is not a very economical one to make unless there happens to be sour cream on hand. It is, however, a very good dressing for both fruit and vegetable salad.
  44. CREAM DRESSING.--A simple dressing that requires very little time or skill in preparation and that affords a means of using up cream that has soured is the one given in the accompanying recipe. Sweet cream may also be used in the same way if desired, and this makes an excellent dressing for cabbage salad, plain cucumber salad with lettuce, or fruit salad. If the dressing is to be used for fruit salad, lemon juice may be used in the place of vinegar.
  45. With the knowledge already obtained of the food value of the vegetables that are generally used as ingredients in vegetable salads, the housewife ought to have no difficulty in determining whether she is giving her family a salad that is high or low in food value. For instance, she should know that the food value of a plain lettuce or cucumber salad is lower than that of one made from potatoes because of the different values in the vegetables used.. In addition, she ought to be familiar with the fact that the dressing added to salads has, in most cases, greater food value than the other ingredients of the salad. Equipped with such knowledge, she will observe that the vegetable salads here given are comparatively low in food value. Consequently, nearly every one of them will lend itself nicely for use with a dinner or a comparatively heavy meal.
  46. In these recipes, as well as in those for the other kinds of salad, the proportion of ingredients may be varied according to the quantity of the particular food in supply. For instance, if a recipe for a salad of peas and celery calls for 1 cupful of each of these vegetables and only 3/4 cupful of celery can be obtained, there is no reason why the difference cannot be made up by using 1 1/4 cupfuls of peas. But if such a change is to be made, the ingredients should be increased or decreased in the correct proportion. Then the quantity of salad that the recipe is intended to produce will not be altered and the housewife will know just how many the salad will serve. In the various recipes, about 1/2 cupful of salad is the quantity allowed for each person. This may be enlarged or made smaller in order to suit the quantity of other foods served at the same meal.
  47. ASPARAGUS SALAD--Salad in which asparagus is the chief ingredient is one that may be served during the entire year, for either freshly cooked or canned asparagus may be used; in fact, the canned asparagus is considered by many persons to be better than that which is freshly cooked. It may be cut into inch lengths or the tips may be cut down about 4 inches from the top or even farther.
  48. BEET-AND-BEAN SALAD.--An excellent winter salad and one that may be made from canned or left-over vegetables is beet-and-bean salad. If string beans happen to be left over or only part of a can remains, they may be combined with beets that are canned or freshly cooked for the purpose. This salad should be carefully combined just before serving, since the beets will discolor the rest of the ingredients if it is allowed to stand any length of time.
  49. CABBAGE SALAD.--A salad that always finds favor is made by combining cabbage with a boiled salad dressing or with an uncooked sour-cream dressing. Salad of this kind may be served in any desired way, but a rather novel way to serve it is illustrated in Fig. 2. The contents of a head of cabbage is removed, leaving four or five of the outside leaves intact. The shell thus formed is cut into points around the top and then filled with shredded cabbage and the dressing that is to be used. When this is placed on a bed of lettuce, an attractive dish is the result.
  50. CABBAGE-AND-CELERY SALAD.--Cabbage and celery combine very well, for they are similar in color and crispness. They can be procured at the same time of the year, and while celery is not cheap, cabbage is a comparatively inexpensive food and the two combined make an inexpensive salad. Because the color of both is very much the same, pimiento is added to give a contrasting color.
  51. WINTER SALAD.--A salad made entirely of winter vegetables may be prepared when there are no fresh vegetables in supply. If any of the vegetables are left over, the others may be prepared to use with the left-over ones. A good plan to follow when carrots, turnips, or potatoes are being prepared for a meal is to cook more than is necessary for the one meal and then set aside part of them for a salad to be served at another meal.
  52. CAULIFLOWER SALAD.--Cauliflower makes a rather unusual salad, and for a change it will be found to be delightful. It does not combine with other vegetables very readily, but a cooked floweret or two may often be used to garnish another vegetable salad.
  53. CAULIFLOWER-AND-TOMATO SALAD.--A salad in which cauliflower and tomatoes are combined is attractive in appearance if it is nicely made.
  54. CELERY SALAD.--One means of using stalks of celery that are just a little too coarse to serve nicely on the table is to combine them with radishes and make a salad. The more tender celery, of course, makes a better salad. If the radishes selected for the salad are of the red variety and they are used without peeling, they add a touch of color to the dish.
  55. SLICED CUCUMBER-AND-ONION SALAD.--An attractive way in which to serve sliced cucumbers and onions is shown in Fig. 4. A single large cucumber should be selected for this salad, and Bermuda onions with a mild flavor will be found to be best.
  56. CUCUMBER SALAD.--Besides serving plain slices of cucumber on a lettuce leaf, as may be done at any time, cucumbers may be used as an ingredient in the making of many salads. A rather attractive way in which to use cucumbers is shown in Fig. 5 and is explained in the accompanying recipe.
  57. CUCUMBER-AND-TOMATO SALAD.--A salad made of cucumbers and tomatoes is very attractive because of the contrasting colors of the vegetables, and it is at the same time extremely palatable. When such a salad is to be made, small, firm tomatoes and rather large cucumbers that do not contain very large seeds should be selected. Peel the cucumbers and tomatoes and cut them into slices of any desired thickness. Garnish salad plates with lettuce, and on this place a ring of the slices, alternating the tomatoes with the cucumbers. In the center, put a slice of cucumber or tomato and serve with any desired salad dressing.
  58. ONION SALAD.--To persons who are fond of the flavor of onions, the salad given in the accompanying recipe is very agreeable, but it is a wise plan not to serve onions or salads containing onions unless every one who is served is certain to enjoy them. When a salad is made from onions, a mild onion, such as the Bermuda or Spanish onion, should be selected.
  59. PEAS-AND-CELERY SALAD.--Peas may be freshly cooked for peas-and-celery salad, but canned peas will do just as well. Left-over peas not prepared with cream sauce may also be utilized nicely in this way, or if a portion of a can of peas is needed for the meal, the remainder may be used for a smaller quantity of salad than here stated. Boiled salad dressing will be found to be best for this combination of vegetables.
  60. TOMATO SALAD.--Fresh tomatoes make a delightful salad because of their appetizing appearance and color. In fact, when they are placed on a bed of green garnish, nothing can be more delightful. Tomatoes may be served whole on a lettuce leaf or they may be sliced. Then, again, as shown in Fig. 6, they may be cut from the center into sections that are allowed to fall part way open. In any of these forms, they may be served with French dressing, mayonnaise, or any cooked salad dressing. [Illustration: FIG. 6]
  62. COMBINATION SALAD.--A combination salad may be made of almost any combination of vegetables. The one given here contains only fresh vegetables, but, if desired, others may be added or some of those mentioned may be omitted. This will be found to be a very attractive way in which to make a large salad to be served from a bowl or a deep plate.
  63. POTATO SALAD NO. L.--Potato salad is usually considered to be an economical salad. It may be made with left-over potatoes or potatoes cooked especially for this purpose. If there are in supply a large number of small potatoes, which are difficult to use in ordinary ways, they may be cooked with the skins on and peeled to be used for salad when they have cooled. A boiled salad dressing is perhaps the most desirable for such a salad.
  64. POTATO SALAD NO. 2.--The salad given in the accompanying recipe is perhaps more of a combination of vegetables than it is a potato salad.
  65. OLD-FASHIONED POTATO SALAD.--The potato salad given in this recipe is agreeable to persons who like the flavor of smoked meat. It is an excellent salad to serve for a lunch or a supper with cold ham, frankfurters, or any cold sliced meat.
  66. TOMATO-AND-STRING BEAN SALAD.--Besides being appetizing in flavor and appearance, tomato-and-string-bean salad, which is illustrated in
  67. STRING-BEAN SALAD.--Either string or wax beans may be used for string-bean salad, which is shown in Fig. 9, and they may be cooked freshly for the purpose or be home canned or commercially canned beans. To make this salad, place a neat pile of beans on a lettuce leaf resting on a plate and moisten with a few drops of vinegar or lemon juice. Serve with mayonnaise or cooked salad dressing. If desired, the beans may be cut into inch lengths and mixed with the dressing, but this does not make so attractive a salad.
  68. GREEN-VEGETABLE SALAD.--There are a number of green vegetables that are much used for salad either alone or with other vegetables. All of them are used in practically the same way, but a point that should not be overlooked if an appetizing salad is desired is that they should always be fresh and crisp when served. Any salad dressing that is preferred may be served with them. Chief among these green vegetables come lettuce, including the ordinary leaf lettuce, head lettuce, and romaine lettuce, which is not so common as the other varieties. Several kinds of endive as well as watercress may also be used for salad.
  69. Sometimes it is desired to make a salad that contains both fruits and vegetables. Various fruits can be used for this purpose, but celery, as has been stated, is about the only vegetable that combines well with fruit, unless, of course, the garnish, which is nearly always a vegetable, is considered a part of the salad. Recipes for several very appetizing salads containing both vegetables and fruits follow.
  70. APPLE-AND-CELERY SALAD.--If an excellent winter salad is desired, apple-and-celery salad should be selected, for both celery and apples are best during the winter months. As they are very similar in color, they are not especially appetizing in appearance when combined for a salad, but they make a very popular combination with most persons.
  71. WALDORF SALAD.--If to the apple-and-celery salad just explained 1/2 cupful of chopped English walnut meats is added, what is known as
  72. GRAPEFRUIT-AND-CELERY SALAD.--Celery is sometimes used with grapefruit to make a salad. This combination is most often served with
  73. Salads made of fruit are undoubtedly the most delicious that can be prepared. In addition to being delightful in both appearance and flavor, they afford another means of introducing fruit into the diet. As fruit is decidedly beneficial for all persons with a normal digestion, every opportunity to include it in the diet should be grasped.
  74. FRUIT-SALAD DRESSING.--Various dressings may be served with fruit salad, and usually the one selected depends on the preference of those to whom it is served. However, an excellent dressing for salad of this kind and one that most persons find delicious is made from fruit juices thickened by means of eggs. Whenever a recipe in this Section calls for a fruit-salad dressing, this is the one that is intended.
  75. COMBINATION FRUIT SALAD.--The combination of fruits given in the accompanying recipe makes a very good salad, but it need not be adhered to strictly. If one or more of the fruits is not in supply, it may be omitted and some other used. In case canned pineapple is used for the salad, the juice from the fruit may be utilized in making a fruit-salad dressing.
  76. SUMMER COMBINATION SALAD.--Any agreeable combination of fruits which may be obtained during the same season will be suitable for summer combination salad. The combination given in the accompanying recipe includes strawberries, pineapple, and cherries. However, pineapple and cherries may be used alone, or strawberries and pineapple may be used without the cherries, or red raspberries may be used to garnish such a salad.
  77. FILBERT-AND-CHERRY SALAD.--If something different in the way of salad is desired, cherries that have been seeded and then filled with filberts will prove a delightful change. With this salad, which is shown in Fig. 10, any salad dressing may be served, but fruit-salad dressing makes it especially delicious.
  78. DATE-AND-ENGLISH-WALNUT SALAD.--Persons who are fond of dates will find a salad made of dates and walnuts very palatable. In addition, such a salad is high in food value. Select firm whole dates, wash, and dry between clean towels. Cut a slit in the side of each date and remove the seed. Place half an English walnut meat inside and press the date together. Garnish salad plates with lettuce and serve five or six of the dates in a star shape for each serving. In the center, pour a spoonful or two of cream salad dressing, boiled salad dressing, or any other dressing that may be desired.
  79. APPLE-DATE-AND-ORANGE SALAD.--The combination of fruits required by the accompanying recipe is an easy one to procure in the winter time.
  80. CALIFORNIA SALAD.--During the months in which California grapes can be found in the market, a very delicious salad can be made by combining them with grapefruit and oranges. Either Malaga or Tokay grapes may be used.
  81. BANANA-AND-PEANUT SALAD.--A very good fruit-and-nut combination for a salad consists of bananas and ground peanuts. The bananas, after being cut in half lengthwise, are rolled in the peanuts, placed on a lettuce leaf, and served with dressing. If it is desired to improve the flavor, the bananas may be dipped into the salad dressing before being rolled in the peanuts.
  82. FRUIT IN CANTALOUPE SHELLS.--During cantaloupe season, a delightful fruit salad can be made by combining several different kinds of fruit with the meat of cantaloupe and serving the mixture in the cantaloupe shells. Such a salad is an excellent one to serve when dainty refreshments are desired or when something unusual is wanted for a nice luncheon.
  83. PINEAPPLE-AND-NUT SALAD.--Because of its refreshing flavor, pineapple makes a delicious salad. It may be combined with various foods, but is very good when merely nuts and salad dressing are used, as in the accompanying recipe.
  84. Salads that are made with cheese, eggs, fish, or meat may be classed as HIGH-PROTEIN SALADS, for, as has already been learned, these foods are characterized by the protein they contain. Of course, those made almost entirely of meat or fish are higher in this food substance than the others. However, the salads that contain a combination of cheese and fruit are comparatively high in protein, and at the same time they supply to the diet what is desirable in the way of a fruit salad.
  85. POINSETTIA SALAD--Cream cheese, such as Neufchâtel or Philadelphia cream cheese, combines very well with some fruits and vegetables. It is used with pineapple and cherries in the preparation of poinsettia salad, which is illustrated in Fig. 11. As can be imagined, this makes a pretty decoration for a Christmas table or a salad to be served around holiday time.
  86. PEACH-AND-CREAM-CHEESE SALAD--An excellent way of using canned peaches is to combine them with cream cheese for a salad, as shown in
  87. PEAR-AND-CHEESE SALAD--If other fruits are not in supply for use in salad and pears can be obtained, they may be utilized with cream cheese in a pleasing way, as Fig. 13 shows.
  88. Green-Pepper-and-Cheese Salad.-In Fig. 14 is shown a vegetable-and-cheese combination in the form of a salad made of green pepper and cheese. To make this kind of salad, select firm green peppers, one being sufficient if a large one can be obtained. Season cream cheese well with paprika and a little additional salt if necessary. Cut the top from the pepper, clean out the inside, and pack tight with the cheese. Cut the filled pepper into thin slices, place two or three of these slices on a salad plate garnished with lettuce leaves, and serve with French dressing.
  89. DAISY SALAD.--If an effective, somewhat ornamental salad is desired, daisy salad, which is illustrated in Fig. 15, will prove satisfactory.
  90. HUMPTY DUMPTY SALAD.--In Fig. 16 is shown an attractive-appearing and extremely appetizing salad known as Humpty Dumpty salad. It consists of tomatoes and hard-cooked eggs garnished with pieces of stuffed olives, the manner in which the egg is placed in each portion accounting for its name.
  91. WATER-LILY SALAD.--A means of using eggs in salad without the addition of other foods is found in water-lily salad, which is illustrated in Fig. 17. If eggs are to be served for a luncheon or some other light meal, this method may add a little variety to the usual ways of serving them.
  92. EASTER SALAD.--Cream cheese makes an attractive salad when formed into egg-shaped balls and served in a nest of shredded lettuce. To prepare this salad, which is known as Easter salad, shred lettuce finely and place it in the shape of a nest on salad plates. Make tiny egg-shaped balls of cream cheese moistened with sufficient cream to handle. Place three or four of these in the inside of the lettuce. Dust with paprika and serve with any desired dressing.
  93. SALMON SALAD.--Persons who are fond of salmon will find salmon salad a very agreeable dish. In addition to affording a means of varying the diet, this salad makes a comparatively cheap high-protein dish that is suitable for either supper or luncheon.
  94. TUNA-FISH SALAD.--A salad that is both attractive and appetizing can be made by using tuna fish as a foundation. This fish, which is grayish-white in color, can be obtained in cans like salmon. As it is not high in price, it gives the housewife another opportunity to provide her family with an inexpensive protein dish.
  95. LOBSTER OR CRAB SALAD.--Lobster salad and crab salad are made in practically the same way, so that a recipe for one may be used for the other. The meat may be either fresh or canned, but, of course, fresh lobster or crab meat is more desirable if it can be obtained.
  96. SHRIMP SALAD.--Shrimps may be used in an attractive salad in the manner shown in Fig. 18. Persons who care for sea food find this a most appetizing dish. Like lobster and crab, shrimp may be purchased in cans, and so it is possible to have this salad at any season.
  97. CHICKEN SALAD.--A favored means of using left-over chicken is to make chicken salad of it. It is well, however, if the chicken can be prepared especially for the salad and the nicer pieces of meat used. This is usually done when chicken salad is to be served at a party or special dinner. If the chicken is scarce, veal or pork may be substituted for one-third or one-fourth of the meat.
  98. STUFFED CELERY.--An appetizing relish may be prepared by stuffing celery in the manner shown in Fig. 19. Stuffed celery is not exactly a salad, but it may be used to take the place of a salad in a meal. It is often served with soup as an appetizer, but since it is high in food value it deserves a place of greater prominence in the meal. Any desirable cheese may be used to make the stuffing. Roquefort cheese is probably the most popular one, but many persons do not care for it. Cream cheese, ordinary American cheese, or even cottage cheese finely mashed may be used for this purpose.
  99. When salads are mentioned, Sandwiches naturally come to the mind, for while they have many other uses, they are often served as an accompaniment to a salad. Sandwiches are generally thought of as two thin slices of bread put together with a filling, such as meat, cheese, fruit, etc. However, there are as many varieties of sandwiches as of salads and they serve a large number of purposes. For instance, they may be merely two pieces of buttered bread put together or they may be elaborate both as to shape and contents. In reality, many different things are considered as sandwiches. Sometimes one piece of bread spread with a filling and usually decorated in some way is served with afternoon tea or a very light luncheon. Then, again, sandwiches often consist of three layers of bread instead of two, and for other kinds the bread is toasted instead of being used plain.
  100. BREAD FOR SANDWICHES.--Although sandwiches vary greatly in both form and contents, bread or something that may be substituted for it always forms the foundation of this class of food. White bread is much employed for this purpose, but rye, graham, brown, or whole-wheat bread, or in fact any other desirable kind, may be used, depending on the nature of the sandwich or the kind preferred. Several matters concerning the bread that is used, however, should receive attention if successful sandwiches are to be the result.
  101. In the first place, the bread used should be at least 24 hours old, as difficulty will be experienced in cutting bread that is any fresher.
  102. For sandwich making, bakers often sell special sandwich bread. Some persons prefer sandwiches made of such bread, but, as a rule, it will be found easier to use the ordinary bread baked by the baker or bread that is baked in the home for this purpose. When bread is being made for sandwiches, a good plan is to give the dough a little additional kneading and, toward the end of the kneading, to work in a small amount of flour, perhaps a little extra sugar, and, if desired, an egg. Then, if it is not allowed to rise as much as usual, it will make a bread that is finer in texture and easier to handle.
  103. UTENSILS FOR SANDWICH MAKING.--Very few utensils are required for the making of sandwiches, but those which are used must be of the right kind if well-made sandwiches are desired. To cut the bread, a large sharp knife must be used, for, generally, the bread is required to be cut thin and this cannot be done successfully unless the knife is sufficiently sharp. In addition, a case knife or a small spatula is needed for the spreading of the bread. If sandwiches in any quantity are to be spread with a filling besides butter, two case knives or a case knife and a spatula should be provided.
  104. MAKING SANDWICHES.--The point that should be remembered about sandwiches is that they should be as dainty as possible. Therefore, the
  105. No matter what kind of filling is to be used for sandwiches, the slices are usually buttered before the filling is applied. To make the butter soft enough to spread easily, it should be creamed with a spoon, as shown in Fig. 22, but it should never be melted. With the bread sliced and the butter creamed, one of a pair of slices should be spread with butter, as in Fig. 23, and the other with filling, and then the two slices should be put together. After a number of sandwiches have been made, they should be placed on top of one another and, as shown in Fig. 24, the crusts should be cut from a small pile at one time.
  106. Variety can be obtained from time to time in the shapes of sandwiches by cutting the bread in different ways. For instance, one time it may be cut into strips lengthwise, another time into halves crosswise, and again, diagonally, so as to form triangular pieces. To vary the sandwich filling, a lettuce leaf may be placed on the buttered slice of the bread and the slice containing the filling put on top of this. Lettuce used in this way makes a delightful addition to cheese, meat, egg, or vegetable sandwiches.
  107. It is often necessary to make sandwiches some time before they are to be served. In such an event, they should be kept moistened so that they will be fresh when they are served. To accomplish this, they may be wrapped first in oiled paper and then in a damp towel, or if oiled paper is not in supply, the towel alone will answer the purpose, provided it is not made too damp and a dry towel is wrapped on the outside.
  108. Often it is desired to serve bread and butter with a certain dish and yet something more is wanted than just two pieces of bread spread with butter and put together. While bread-and-butter sandwiches are probably the simplest kind that can be made, variety can be obtained in them if the housewife will exercise a little ingenuity. Fig. 25 shows what can be done in the way of bread-and-butter sandwiches with very little effort, for the two plates on the left contain sandwiches made merely of bread and butter.
  109. ROUND SANDWICHES.--The round sandwiches on the rear left plate in
  111. CHECKERBOARD SANDWICHES.--Another way of serving bread and butter is in the form of checkerboard sandwiches. These are no more difficult to make than the ribbon sandwiches, but the slices of the bread must be cut evenly and all must be of the same thickness. In addition, the bread should be firm and close-grained and the butter should be put on thickly enough to make the slices of bread stick together. Cut three slices each of graham bread and white bread 1/2 inch in thickness. Spread one side of each slice thickly with butter. Place a slice of graham between two slices of white bread and a slice of white between two slices of graham. Trim these piles evenly and cut them into 1/2-inch slices. Butter these slices and put them together so that brown bread will alternate with white and white with brown. Place the slices under a weight in a cool place until the butter becomes perfectly hard. Then cut them into thin slices for serving and they will be found to resemble a checkerboard.
  112. Certain vegetables may be used with bread and butter to make very appetizing sandwiches. The vegetables most often used for this purpose are lettuce, tomatoes, cucumbers, celery, and onions. Generally, when vegetables are to be used for sandwich filling, the sandwiches should be made immediately before they are to be served, as they are apt to become moist if they are allowed to stand very long. An exception to this is celery sandwiches, which are made in the form of rolls and which must stand piled close together for some time in order for the butter to become hard enough to stick them together.
  113. LETTUCE SANDWICHES.--Cut white bread into slices about 1/4 inch thick and spread these thinly with butter. Place a leaf or two of tender lettuce between each two slices and spread with thick salad dressing. Put the slices of bread together, trim off the edges of the lettuce and the crusts if desired, and serve.
  114. TOMATO SANDWICHES.--Slice bread about 1/4 inch thick and spread the slices with butter. Peel firm red tomatoes and cut them into thin slices. Cover one slice of bread with a slice of tomato, spread this with thick salad dressing, and, if desired, place a lettuce leaf over this. Cover with a second slice of bread, trim the edges, and serve.
  115. CUCUMBER SANDWICHES.--Peel and slice into thin slices a medium-sized cucumber that does not contain large seeds. Place the slices in very cold water to make them crisp. Slice bread about 1/4 inch thick and spread the slices with butter. Place thin slices of cucumber on one piece, spread with thick salad dressing, and put a lettuce leaf on top of this, if desired. Cover with the second slice of bread, trim the edges, and serve.
  116. ROLLED CELERY SANDWICHES.--Cut 1/4-inch slices from a comparatively fresh loaf of bread. Trim the crusts and spread with butter. Cut the stems of tender celery into pieces that are as long as the bread is wide. Place the celery on one edge of the bread, fill the center of the stem with salad dressing, and roll the celery into the bread like a jelly roll. Place a moist napkin in the bottom of a bread pan and stack the rolls in rows, with the loose edge down, so that they will stay rolled. When all have been placed in the pan, fold the edges of the napkin across the top and allow them to stand for a few hours before serving. This cannot be done with bread that is dry. If the sandwiches are to be served at once, the edges will have to be tied or fastened with toothpicks.
  117. ONION-AND-PEPPER SANDWICHES.--Cut bread into slices about 1/4 inch thick and spread these with butter. Slice Spanish or Bermuda onions into thin slices and cut a green pepper into thin rings. Place a slice of the onion on one piece of buttered bread and on top of this put two or three rings of green pepper. If desired, spread with salad dressing, or merely season the onion with salt and pepper. Place the second slice of bread on top, trim the edges, and serve.
  118. Sandwiches that have fruit for their filling appeal to many persons. For the most part, dried fruits are used for this purpose and they usually require cooking. Another type of fruit sandwich is that which has jelly or marmalade for its filling. As fruit sandwiches are sweet and not very hearty, they are much served for afternoon tea or to provide variety when another kind of sandwich is being served.
  119. DATE SANDWICHES.--To any one who desires a sweet sandwich, the date sandwich in the accompanying recipe will be found to be very agreeable.
  120. FRUIT SANDWICHES.--The three fruits mentioned in the accompanying recipe may be used in equal proportions as here given, only two of them may be utilized, or the proportions may be changed to suit the supply on hand. This sandwich may be made with white bread, brown bread, graham bread, or whole-wheat bread.
  121. APRICOT SANDWICHES.--To people who are fond of apricots, sandwiches containing apricot filling are very delicious. If jelly or marmalade is plentiful, it may be used in place of the apricots to make the sandwich.
  122. JELLY AND MARMALADE SANDWICHES.--Jelly and marmalade always make acceptable filling for sandwiches, and as these foods are usually in supply sandwiches containing them require less trouble to prepare than do most sandwiches. Then, too, if two kinds of sandwiches are to be served for a tea or a little lunch, sandwiches of this kind are very nice for the second one. They are made in the usual way, but if the jelly or marmalade is very thin, it is an excellent plan to spread each slice of bread used for the sandwich thinly with butter so that the filling will not soak into the bread.
  123. When sandwiches of a substantial nature are desired, those in which high-protein foods are used as fillings will be found very acceptable.
  124. JELLY-AND-CREAM-CHEESE SANDWICHES.--A sandwich that is very dainty as well as unusually good is made by using both jelly and cream cheese for filling. Sandwiches of this kind are shown on the plate to the right in Fig. 25. If a red jelly, such as currant jelly, is used, the appearance of the sandwich will be better than if a light jelly or a very dark jelly is used.
  125. RYE-BREAD-AND-CHEESE SANDWICHES.--Rye bread and cheese make a favored combination with many persons. Swiss cheese is an excellent kind to serve with rye bread, but the American-made Cheddar cheese does very nicely if the other cannot be procured.
  126. CHEESE SANDWICHES.--Cheese combined with pimiento, sweet pickles, olives, and nuts makes a filling that has an excellent flavor.
  127. CHEESE-AND-NUT SANDWICHES.--Cream cheese is used in the accompanying recipe, but other cheese may be substituted for it if desired. Sandwiches containing this filling are high in both protein and fat, and may be served very nicely with a vegetable salad.
  128. PEANUT-BUTTER SANDWICHES.--Peanut butter alone makes a rather dry sandwich, as it has a peculiar consistency that makes it difficult to swallow without moistening. This condition can be overcome by adding a little salad dressing to the peanut butter.
  129. HARD-COOKED-EGG SANDWICHES.--An excellent sandwich filling can be made by seasoning hard-cooked eggs and combining them with vinegar. To make this filling, cook the desired number of eggs until they are hard. Remove them from the shells and put them through a sieve. Season well with salt and pepper and then add sufficient vinegar to make them of a good consistency to spread. Cut bread thin, spread one piece with butter, and the opposite piece with the egg mixture. Put them together, trim the edges if desired, and serve.
  130. MEAT SANDWICHES.--Cold cooked meat may be used in sandwiches in the usual way by putting thin slices between buttered bread, or it may be put through the grinder or chopped finely and then mixed with salad dressing until thin enough to spread. With the meat may also be chopped pickles, olives, a small amount of onion, green pepper, pimiento, or anything desired for flavoring. Left-over roast meat that will not slice very well and trimmings from ham may be utilized in this way.
  131. CHICKEN SANDWICHES.--Cold chicken sliced thinly, put between pieces of crisp toast, and spread with salad dressing, makes a sandwich that is most delicious and offers a pleasant change from the usual plain-bread sandwich. Cut bread 1/4 inch thick and toast it a delicate brown on both sides. Spread thinly with butter when it comes from the toaster. Between each two pieces place thin slices of chicken. Spread the chicken with a small amount of salad dressing, place a lettuce leaf on top of this, and cover with a second piece of toast. Serve.
  132. CHICKEN-SALAD SANDWICHES.--When there is on hand only a small amount of chicken that is perhaps not in the right condition for slicing, it is a good plan to make a salad of it and use this for sandwich filling. If necessary, a little veal or pork may be used with the chicken.
  133. All the sandwiches thus far discussed are served cold, but various hot sandwiches can also be made. As these generally have meat or a high-protein food for their filling, they may be used as the main dish in the meal in which they are served. Sandwiches of this kind are excellent for a light luncheon or for supper.
  134. HOT-MEAT SANDWICHES.--If both meat and gravy remain from a roast, a very excellent luncheon dish may be made by slicing the meat thin, placing it on slices of bread, and pouring the gravy, which has been heated, over both the bread and meat. There may be a second layer of bread on top of the meat if desired.
  135. HOT FRIED-EGG SANDWICHES.--A very good way in which to serve eggs is to sauté them and then make sandwiches of them. Spread slices of bread thinly with butter. Break the desired number of eggs into a frying pan with melted butter or other fat, season with salt and pepper, and fry on one side. Then turn and fry on the other side until the yolk becomes quite hard. Place an egg on one slice of the buttered bread, place a second slice over this, and serve while hot.
  136. HAM-AND-EGG SANDWICHES.--The combination of ham and eggs is always a good one, but it becomes especially palatable when used in a sandwich, as here explained. Slice boiled ham into thin slices and sauté in hot fat for a few minutes. Then break into a bowl as many eggs as will be required, beat slightly, and pour over the slices of ham in the frying pan. When the mass has cooked well on one side, turn and cook on the opposite side. There should not be sufficient egg to make this very thick. Season well with salt and pepper and when the mixture is thoroughly cooked, cut it into pieces of a size to fit the bread used for the sandwiches. Cut the bread, butter it slightly, place a piece of the ham-and-egg mixture between each two slices of bread, and serve hot. If desired, toast may be used in place of bread and a more delicious sandwich will be the result.
  137. CLUB SANDWICHES.--Nothing in the way of sandwiches is more delicious than club sandwiches if they are properly made. They involve a little more work than most sandwiches, but no difficulty will be experienced in making them if the directions here given are carefully followed. The ingredients necessary for sandwiches of this kind are bread, lettuce, salad dressing, bacon, and chicken. The quantity of each required will depend on whether a two- or a three-layer sandwich is made and the number of sandwiches to be served.
  138. CHEESE DREAMS.--With persons who are fond of melted cheese, a favorite kind of sandwich is that known as cheese dreams. These make a good dish for a Sunday evening supper or for an evening lunch.
  139. If sandwiches that are entirely different and at the same time attractive are desired for an afternoon tea or to serve with a salad, open sandwiches will undoubtedly find favor. Fig. 27 illustrates several varieties of such sandwiches and shows how artistically they can be made. These are merely submitted as suggestions, but with a little ingenuity, the housewife may work out in designs any ideas she may have. To make such sandwiches attractive, fancy cutters of various shapes will be found helpful. As here shown, round, diamond-shaped, crescent-shaped, triangular, and star-shaped cutters have been used.
  140. The most suitable materials for open sandwiches include cream cheese, jam, stuffed olives, chopped parsley, hard-cooked eggs with the yolks or whites forced through a ricer, pimiento cut into attractive shapes, and any other material that will add either flavor or color. Either white or brown bread may be used. After cutting the bread in the preferred shapes, spread first with butter, if desired, and then with cream cheese, jam, or jelly. With this done, decorate the sandwiches in any desired way. Slices of stuffed olives are placed in the center of several here shown and strips or small pieces of pimiento are used for much of the decoration. On those that have jam or jelly for their foundation, cream cheese put through a pastry tube forms the decoration.
  141. If an accompaniment for a salad is desired and time will not permit the making of open sandwiches, small crisp crackers, decorated with cream cheese, as shown in Fig. 28, will be a very good substitute. These are excellent with a vegetable or a fruit salad; also, when served after the dessert they make a good final course to a meal.
  142. CANAPES.--Although differing somewhat from the open sandwiches that have been described, canapes are usually placed under this head.

Converted from "8loc510.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
  1. FRUIT, as is generally understood, is the fleshy, juicy product of some plant or tree which, when ripe, is suitable for use as food.
  2. Fruits are gradually growing to be less seasonal and more a daily food, and are thus constantly becoming more prevalent in the diet. This condition may be attributed to the present rapid means of transportation and the excellent methods of cold storage that exist. Through these agencies it is possible to ship more or less perishable fruits long distances from their native localities and at times of the year other than the particular season in which they are at their best in the places where they are grown. Thus, fruits that were formerly considered a luxury may now be served regularly, even on the tables of persons having only moderate means.
  3. As far as the composition of fruits is concerned, it is such that most fresh fruits are not particularly high in food value. However, they are characterized by other qualities that make up for what they lack in this respect; then, too, what they contain in the way of heat-producing or tissue-building material is easily digestible. Most fruits contain considerable acid, and this food substance makes them stimulating to the appetite. Advantage of this fact is taken when fruits are served at the beginning of a breakfast or when several of them are combined in a fruit cocktail and served before luncheon or dinner. This acid produces real stimulation in the stomach, resulting in a flow of gastric juice from the glands of the stomach walls. In addition, the delightful color, the fragrant odor, or the pleasant taste of fruit, although a mental effect, is just as real and just as valuable as the actual stimulation of the acids.
  4. Many fruits are eaten raw, while others are cooked either because they require cooking to make them appetizing or because it is desired not to use them in their raw state. The cooking of fruits has a variety of effects on them, being sometimes advantageous and other times detrimental. The flavor is always changed by the application of heat, and in some cases the acid that fruit contains becomes stronger. On the other hand, the fibrous material, or cellulose, of fruits is softened by cooking and thus becomes more digestible. Then, too, the sugar that is usually added to fruits in their cooking increases their food value. Because of these facts, cooked fruits have considerable value and, like raw fruits, should have an important place in the diet. Those fruits which are dried and usually eaten raw, such as figs and dates, supply much nourishment in an easily digestible form.
  5. The medicinal value of fruit has long been considered to be of importance, but this may be almost entirely disregarded, for, with the exception of the fact that most fruits are valuable as a laxative, there is nothing to consider. However, several fruits, such as blackberries and bananas, have an anti-laxative effect, and large quantities of these should for the most part be avoided, especially in the feeding of children.
  6. In general, fruits are divided into two classes, namely, food fruits and flavor fruits. As their names imply, food fruits are valuable as food, whereas flavor fruits are those distinguished by a characteristic flavor. It should be remembered that the flavors, as well as the odors, of fruits, are due chiefly to what is known as their volatile, or ethereal, oils. Fruits in which these oils are very strong are often irritating to certain persons and cause distress of some sort after eating.
  7. In this Section, it is the purpose to acquaint the housewife with the relative value and uses of the various kinds of fruit, to teach her the best methods of preparation, and to supply her with recipes that will encourage her to make greater use of this valuable food in her family's diet. In this discussion, however, the general classification of fruits is not followed. Instead, the various fruits are arranged alphabetically under the headings Berries, Non-Tropical Fruits, Citrus Fruits, Tropical Fruits, Melons, and Dried Fruits, in order to simplify matters. While it is hardly possible to use fruits too extensively, they must not be allowed to take the place of other more nourishing foods that are required by the body. Therefore, in order to make proper use of them, their value in the diet should not be overlooked.
  8. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between vegetables and fruits. For instance, the tomato is in reality a fruit, but it is commonly used as a vegetable, and rhubarb is more of a vegetable than a fruit, but it is always used as a fruit. It can therefore be seen that the line between vegetables and fruits is not clearly drawn. It is well to remember that fruit is usually the edible pulpy mass covering the seeds of various plants and trees, and that it is generally cooked or eaten raw with sugar, whereas vegetables are seldom sweetened in cooking.
  9. Great strides have been made in the cultivation of fruit. Many varieties that formerly grew wild are now commonly cultivated. Most of the cultivated fruits are superior to the same kind in the wild state, at least in size and appearance, but often there seems to be a loss of flavor. Through cultivation, some fruits that were almost inedible in their wild state on account of containing so many seeds have been made seedless. Also, through cross-cultivation, varieties of fruit different from what formerly existed have been obtained. An example of such fruit is the loganberry which is a cross between a red raspberry and a blackberry and retains many of the qualities of each. However, some small fruits, such as blueberries, or huckleberries, are still grown wild and marketed only from their wild source.
  10. While fruit is usually improved by cultivation, there has been a tendency through this means to produce fruits that will stand up for long periods of time, so that they may be marketed at great distances from the place where they are grown. For instance, apples, especially those found in the market in the spring, and other fruits, which look very fine, will many times be found to have a tough skin and to be almost tasteless.
  11. The composition of fruits is a matter of considerable importance, for on it the food value of the fruits depends. To a certain extent, the composition of all fruits is the same, but the varieties of this food differ in their food values almost as greatly as do vegetables. Many of them are extremely low in this respect, while a few of them are rather high. In order to determine the place that fruit should have in a meal, it is necessary to obtain a definite idea of the composition as well as the food value of the different varieties.
  12. PROTEIN AND FAT IN FRUITS.--Such small quantities of protein and fat are contained in fruits that very little attention need be given to these substances. Exceptions are found in avocados, or alligator pears, and in ripe olives, both of which are high in fat. Then, too, there is a small amount of protein in grapes and some other fruits, but it is not sufficient to merit consideration.
  13. CARBOHYDRATE IN FRUIT.--Whatever food value fruits may have, whether it be high or low, is due to the carbohydrate they contain. Some green fruits and bananas contain a very small amount of starch, but on the whole the carbohydrate of fruits is in the form of sugar and is in solution in the fruit juices. The chief form of this carbohydrate is known as levulose, or fruit sugar. However, glucose, another form of sugar, is also found in nearly all fruits, grapes and dried fruits, such as figs, raisins, etc., containing an unusually large amount. In addition, cane sugar is contained in the majority of fruits. Pectin is also a carbohydrate that is found in large quantities in some fruits, while in other fruits it is lacking. This substance is related to the gums and to cellulose. Although it is one of the carbohydrates from which no food value is derived, it is of considerable importance, because it is responsible for the jelly-making properties of fruits.
  14. In fruits that are not fully matured, or, in other words, green fruits, the sugar has not developed to so great an extent as it has in perfectly ripe fruits. Consequently, such fruits are not so high in food value as they are when they become ripe. As is well known, it is the sugar of fruits that accounts for their sweet taste, for the sweeter the fruits, the more sugar and the less acid they contain. The quantity of this substance varies from 1 per cent. in lemons to 20 per cent. in some other fresh fruits, such as plums. In dried fruits, the amount of sugar is much higher, reaching as high as 60 per cent. or even more in such fruits as figs, dates, and raisins.
  15. CELLULOSE IN FRUIT.--In fruits, as in vegetables, cellulose is found in varying quantities. The larger the quantity, the lower will be the food value of the fruit, except where the water has been evaporated, as in the case of dried fruits. The digestibility of this cellulose, however, is not worth considering, for, while it is possible that small amounts of very young and tender cellulose from fruits may be digested, on the whole this characteristic may be disregarded. The skins and seeds of fruits, as well as the coarse material that helps to make up the pulp, are known as refuse and are treated as such by the human digestive tract; but it is to this waste material, or cellulose, that the laxative quality of fruit is largely due.
  16. Minerals in Fruit.--All fruits contain a certain percentage of mineral salts. The quantity varies in the different kinds of fruits, but it averages about 1 per cent. These salts have the opposite effect on the blood from those found in meats and cereals, but they act in much the same way as the minerals of vegetables. In other words, they have a tendency to render the blood more alkaline and less acid. They are therefore one of the food constituents that help to make fruit valuable in the diet and should be retained as far as possible in its preparation. In fact, any method that results in a loss of minerals is not a good one to adopt in the preparation of fruits.
  17. Acids in Fruit.--Some fruits contain only a small amount of acid, while others contain larger quantities. It is these acids, together with the sugar and the volatile oils of fruits, that constitute the entire flavor of this food. Most ripe fruits contain less acid than unripe ones, and cooked fruits are often higher in acid than the same fruits when raw.
  18. The juice of fruits that contain very little sugar and a large quantity of acid, such as the lemon, may be used for the seasoning of food in much the same way that vinegar is used. It may also be diluted with other liquids and used for a beverage. Then, again, various kinds of fruit juices are subjected to a process of fermentation and, through the production of another acid, are made into vinegar and wines. When apples are treated in this way, the fermentation produces acetic acid and, in addition, a certain amount of alcohol. It is on this principle that the making of wines depends.
  19. WATER IN FRUIT.--The water content of fresh fruits is very high, reaching 94 per cent. in some varieties. Dried fruits, on the other hand, contain much less water, their content being in some cases as low as 15 to 20 per cent. It naturally follows that the fruits low in water are high in food value, while those containing considerable water have in their composition less of the material that adds food value. The high percentage of water in fresh fruits, together with the acids they contain, accounts for the fact that these fruits are so refreshing. Fruits of this kind, in addition to having this refreshing quality, help to provide the necessary liquid in the diet.
  20. TABLE SHOWING COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE OF FRUITS.--Just as fruits vary in their composition, so do they vary in their food value. This fact is clearly shown in Table I, which gives the percentage of food substances contained in different fruits and the food value per pound, in calories, that these fruits contain. As in the table showing the composition and food value of vegetables given in Vegetables, Part 1, the figures in this table are taken from Atwater's Table of American Food Materials and refer to the edible part of the material. Reference to Table I, as progress is made with the study of fruits and their preparation, will be of much assistance in learning the place that fruits occupy in the dietary.
  21. EFFECT OF RIPENESS ON FRUITS.--There is a very marked difference between ripe and green fruits as to their composition, flavor, texture, palatability, and digestibility. Green fruits, containing more acid than ripe ones, serve some purposes for which ripe fruits of the same variety cannot be used so well. For instance, a very much better jelly can be made from grapes that are not entirely ripe than from those which have completely ripened. Green fruits contain less sugar than do ripe ones, and so they are more sour to the taste. In some cases, the carbohydrate found in green fruits is partly in the form of starch, which in the process of development is changed to sugar. The cellulose of green fruits, especially that distributed throughout the pulp of the fruit itself, is usually tougher and harder than that which is found in the same fruit after it has ripened.
  22. DIGESTIBILITY OF FRUITS.--The ripeness and freshness of fruits determine their digestibility to a great extent, but the peculiarities of each person have much to do with this matter. Many times a particular fruit will agree with almost every one but a few exceptional persons, and, for no apparent reason except their own peculiarities of digestion, it disagrees very badly with them. Abnormal conditions of the alimentary tract, however, cannot be taken into consideration in a general discussion on the digestibility of foods, for it is a subject that cannot be treated except from a dietetic standpoint. A safe rule to follow when a fruit is found to disagree with a person is to omit it from that person's diet. This need not prove a hardship, for the wide range, or variety, of fruits makes it possible to find one or more kinds that will agree with each person.
  23. As has been explained, sugar is the food material from which the nutritive value of fruits is obtained. With the exception of a few predigested foods, manufactured in such a way that they can be digested easily, this sugar is probably the most easily digested form of food that can be obtained. This substance, being held in solution in the fruit juices, which are encased in a cellulose covering, depends to some extent for its digestion on the hardness of the cellulose. When this covering is old and hard or green and tough, as the case may be, it is difficult for the digestive juices to break through and attack the sugar contained inside. As this difficulty is not encountered when fruit is fresh and ripe, its freshness and ripeness become important factors in digestibility. Cooking is also an important factor because it softens the cellulose, but there are certain other changes made by cooking that must be taken into consideration as well.
  24. EFFECT OF COOKING ON FRUIT.--Cooking affects fruits in numerous ways, depending on the condition of the fruit itself, the method used, and the length of time the heat is applied. When fruits are cooked in water or in a thin sirup, the cellulose becomes softened. On the other hand, if they are cooked in a heavy sirup, as, for instance, in the making of preserves, the cellulose becomes hardened and the fruit, instead of breaking up, remains whole or nearly so and becomes tough and hard in texture. The addition of quantities of sugar, as in the latter case, besides helping to keep the fruit whole, increases its food value.
  25. Another change that usually takes place when fruit is cooked is in its flavor. This change is due either to an increase in the acid contained in the fruit or to a decrease in the amount of sugar. Some authorities believe that cooking increases the amount of acid, while others hold the view that, when fruit is cooked without removing the skins and seeds, the acid contained in the seeds and skins and not noticeable when the fruit is fresh, is released during the cooking. Such is undoubtedly the case with plums. The change that is brought about in the sugar by the cooking of fruits consists in changing the cane sugar into levulose and dextrose, which are not so sweet. This change accounts for the fact that some cooked fruits are less sweet than others, in spite of the fact that the acid does not seem to be increased.
  26. In addition to producing certain changes in fruit, cooking, if done thoroughly, renders fruits sterile, as it does other foods; that is, it kills any bacteria that the fruits may contain. Advantage of this fact is taken when fruits are canned for future use. Although most persons prefer raw fruit to that which is cooked, there are some who object to eating this food raw, but who are not always certain as to the reason for their objection. Like other raw foods, fruits in their fresh state contain vitamines; that is, a substance that helps to keep the body in a healthy, normal condition. These are found to some extent in cooked fruits, but not in the same quantity as in raw ones; consequently, as much use as possible should be made of raw fruits in the diet.
  27. REQUIRED SANITARY CONDITIONS.--Since large quantities of fruits are eaten raw, it is necessary that they be handled in the most sanitary manner if disease from their use be prevented. However, they are often in an unsanitary condition when they reach the housewife. For instance, they become contaminated from the soiled hands of the persons who handle them, from the dirt deposited on them during their growth, from the fertilizer that may be used on the soil, from flies and other insects that may crawl over them, and from being stored, displayed, or sold in surroundings where they may be exposed to the dirt from streets and other contaminating sources. Because of the possibility of all these sources of contamination, it is essential that fruits that are not to be cooked be thoroughly washed before they are eaten. It is true that a certain amount of flavor or food material may be lost from the washing, but this is of little importance compared with the possibility of preventing disease.
  28. WASHING FRUITS.--The manner of washing fruits depends largely on the nature of the fruit. Fruits that have a sticky surface, such as raisins, figs, and dates, usually have to be washed in several waters. Hard fruits, such as pears, apples, plums, etc., should be washed with running water. Berries and softer fruits require more careful procedure, it usually being advisable to pour them into a pan containing water and then, after stirring them around in the water until all dirt is removed, take them from the water, rather than pour the water from them. In any event, all fruits eaten raw should be properly washed.
  29. SERVING FRUITS.--While the serving of fruits is a simple matter, it should be done in as dainty a way as possible, so as not to detract from their natural attractiveness. If the skins are to remain on the fruits while serving, a knife, preferably a fruit knife, should be served with them, and nothing smaller than a salad plate should be used. The carefully washed leaves of the fruit served make an attractive garnish. For instance, large, perfect strawberries with the stems on, when heaped on a plate garnished with strawberry leaves and served with a small dish of powdered sugar, are always attractive. Likewise, a bunch of grapes served on grape leaves never fails to attract.
  30. BERRIES are among the most perishable fruits and begin to come into market early in the summer season. In most localities, the berry season begins with strawberries and ends with blackberries. Because the numerous varieties are somewhat juicy and soft and therefore extremely perishable, they will not stand shipping and storage for long periods of time. The quality of berries depends much on the nature of the season, as well as on the locality in which the berries are grown. If there is a good supply of rain, the berries will be very moist, containing a large amount of pulp in proportion to seeds and skins; but if the season is very dry, the berries are likely to be less moist and consequently less palatable. A general use of berries, and to almost every one the most important, is the making of jams, jellies, and preserves.
  31. BLACKBERRIES come late in the summer season. Good varieties of cultivated blackberries, which are large in size and contain comparatively few seeds, are the best for use. However, in some localities, uncultivated blackberries grow in sufficient quantities to be useful for food. Blackberries are used extensively for jam, as they make an excellent kind that appeals to most persons. Their juice may be used for jelly, but if the berries are to be utilized most successfully in this way they must be picked before they are thoroughly ripe or some fruit that will supply an additional quantity of pectin may have to be combined with them. Fresh blackberries may be served for dessert with sugar and cream. Otherwise, the use of this fruit in desserts is not very extensive, except where the canned berries are used for pastry or pie or are eaten for sauce or where the jam is used in making up various dessert dishes.
  32. BLACKBERRY SPONGE.--One of the few desserts made from fresh blackberries is that explained in the accompanying recipe and known as blackberry sponge. This is very delicious, for the berries are combined with cake and the combination then served with whipped cream.
  33. BLUEBERRIES, which are not cultivated, but grow in the wild state, are a many-seeded berry, blue or bluish-black in color. Huckleberries, although belonging to a different class, are commonly regarded as blueberries by many persons. Berries of this kind occur in many varieties. Some grow on low bushes close to the ground, others are found on taller bushes, and still others grow on very tall bushes. Again, some grow in dry ground in a mountainous region, others grow in a level, sandy soil, and other varieties succeed better on swampy soil. Berries of this class are not so perishable as most other berries, but in many localities they cannot be purchased at all, for, as a rule, they are used only in the immediate vicinity in which they grow.
  34. PRESSED BLUEBERRY PUDDING.--A delicious pudding can be made by combining blueberries with slices of bread. The accompanying recipe gives directions for pudding of this kind.
  35. BLUEBERRY PUDDING.--A baking-powder-biscuit dough baked with blueberries makes a very appetizing dessert. To serve with a pudding of this kind, a cream or a hard sauce should be made.
  36. CRANBERRIES grow wild in many localities, but most persons who use them buy them in the market as a cultivated fruit. Their season begins in the fall and lasts until early spring, and during this time they can usually be obtained in the market. They contain considerable acid and consequently require a great deal of sugar to make them sufficiently sweet to be palatable. They are more often served as an accompaniment to a dinner course, especially with turkey or other poultry, than eaten as a sauce. At times they are used in the making of muffins, pudding, and various kinds of pastry.
  37. CRANBERRY SAUCE.--One can hardly imagine a turkey dinner without cranberry sauce as one of the accompaniments; but it may be served when meats other than turkey are used. In fact, because of its tart flavor, it forms a most appetizing addition to any meal.
  38. CRANBERRY JELLY.--If the cranberries are preferred without the skins, cranberry jelly should be tried. When cool, this solidifies and may be served in attractive ways.
  39. RASPBERRIES come in two general varieties, which are commonly known as red and black. There are many species of each kind, and all of them are much favored, as they are delicious fruit. As a raw fruit, raspberries have their most satisfactory use, but they may be made into several excellent desserts and they are also much used for canning and preserving. They are a perishable fruit and so do not keep well. Because of their softness, they have to be washed very carefully to prevent them from breaking or becoming mushy.
  40. RED-RASPBERRY WHIP.--No more dainty dessert can be made than raspberry whip, which is explained in the accompanying recipe. Cake that is not very rich, such as ladyfingers or sponge cake, makes a very good accompaniment for this dessert.
  41. RASPBERRY SHORTCAKE.--Either black or red raspberries make a delicious shortcake when combined with a cake or a biscuit mixture.
  42. STRAWBERRIES are perhaps more popular than any other kind of berry.
  43. STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE.--For strawberry shortcake, either a biscuit or a plain-cake mixture may be used, some persons preferring the one and other persons the other. This may be made in a large cake, as shown in Fig. 1, and then cut into pieces, or it may be made into individual cakes, as Fig. 2 shows. Whichever plan is followed, the cakes are split in the same way and the crushed berries inserted between the halves. This dish may be made more attractive in appearance if a few of the finest berries are saved and used as a garniture.
  44. STRAWBERRY WHIP.--Strawberries may be used instead of raspberries in the recipe for red-raspberry whip. When prepared in this way and served with fresh cake, strawberries make a very appetizing dessert.
  45. OTHER STRAWBERRY DESSERTS.--If it is desired to serve strawberries just with sugar, they can be made attractive with very little effort.
  46. CURRANTS come in three varieties--red, white, and black. They are not often eaten fresh, but are generally utilized for making jellies, jams, and preserves, or for pastry and pies. When they are to be used for jelly, it is not necessary to pick them from the stems, as they may be washed and cooked on their stems. Some varieties of currants are dried and these are used extensively in the making of cakes, cookies, etc. The usefulness of this fruit as a food is not so great as many others. No recipes are given for it because of its little use in the fresh form.
  47. GOOSEBERRIES, like currants, are somewhat limited in their variety of uses, being seldom used except for jelly, preserves, and pies. Before gooseberries are ripe they are light green in color and rather sour in taste, but as they ripen the amount of acid they contain decreases, so that they become sweet in flavor and change to brownish-purple. Green gooseberries are often canned for pies, and when in this state or when partly ripe they are also made up into many kinds of preserves and jelly. In their preparation for these uses, both the stems and the blossom ends should be removed. As a rule, berries of this kind keep very well and stand considerable handling because their outside skin is very tough.
  48. LOGANBERRIES are a fruit produced by crossing a variety of red raspberries with a species of blackberry. They are not very common, but are an excellent berry and are well liked by those who can obtain them. They may be used for any purpose for which either raspberries or blackberries are used. Therefore, in the recipes given for these two kinds of berries, loganberries may be substituted whenever they can be obtained.
  49. Besides the berries that have just been described, there are a large number of fruits that are grown in temperate climates and are therefore regarded as NON-TROPICAL FRUITS. Extensive use is made of these fruits in the regions in which they are grown or in places that are within easy shipping distances of the source of supply. All of them have a protective covering, or skin, and consequently keep for long periods of time if they are not too ripe when picked. Those which contain the highest percentage of water are the most perishable.
  50. APPLES, of which there are at least a thousand varieties, are probably the best known of the non-tropical fruits. Some apples mature early in the summer, while others do not ripen until late in the fall. The late apples can be kept during the entire winter if they are properly stored, but the summer varieties must generally be used immediately, as they do not have good keeping qualities. In each locality in which apples are grown, a few varieties seem to be especially popular and are used to the exclusion of others. Some apples are good for one purpose and some for another. For instance, many that are excellent if eaten raw are not good for cooking purposes, and others that cook well are not suitable for eating. It is therefore a good idea for the housewife to become familiar with the varieties of apples raised in her community and to learn the use to which each kind can be put to advantage.
  51. APPLE SAUCE.--When apple sauce is to be made, apples that are somewhat sour and that will cook soft easily should be selected. This is a dessert that can be made all during the winter when it is often difficult to obtain other fruits fresh. It is usually served when roast pork is the main dish of a meal, but is just as appetizing when served with other foods.
  52. PORCUPINE APPLES.--A pleasing change in the way of an apple dessert may be had by making porcupine apples.
  53. BAKED APPLES.--Nothing is more palatable than baked apples if a juicy, sour variety can be secured.
  54. MAPLE APPLES.--Apples cooked in maple sirup have a very pleasing flavor. The sirup that remains in the pan is poured over the apples when they are served.
  55. STEAMED APPLES.--If it is desired to retain the color in apples that have red skins, they should be steamed instead of baked, for the color is lost in baking. Prepare apples that are to be steamed by washing them and removing the cores. Place the apples in a pan with a perforated bottom, put this over a pan of boiling water, cover closely, and steam until they are soft. Serve in any desired way. They will be found to be delicious in flavor and attractive in appearance.
  56. APRICOTS, in appearance, are a cross between peaches and plums. They are grown extensively in the western part of the United States, but they can be grown in any climate where peaches and plums are raised. As they contain considerable acid, they require a large quantity of sugar when they are cooked with their skins and seeds. They are used most frequently for canning, but they make excellent marmalades and jams. They are also dried in large quantities and, in this form, make delicious desserts.
  57. APRICOT SOUFFLÉ.--No more attractive as well as delicious dessert can be prepared than apricot soufflé, which is illustrated in Fig. 3.
  58. CHERRIES come in numerous varieties, some of which are sweet and others sour. The method of using them in cookery depends largely on the kind of cherry that is to be used. Any of the varieties may be canned with varying quantities of sugar and then used for sauce. They also make excellent preserves, especially the sour varieties. However, they do not contain pectin in sufficient quantity for jelly, so that when cherry jelly is desired, other fruit or material containing pectin must be used with the cherries. When purchased in the market, cherries usually have their stems on. They should be washed before the stems are removed. The seeds may be taken out by hand or by means of cherry seeders made especially for this purpose.
  59. CHERRY FRITTERS.--Something different in the way of dessert can be had by making cherry fritters according to the accompanying recipe.
  60. GRAPES are a fruit extensively cultivated both for eating and for the making of wines and raisins. Although found in many varieties, they naturally divide themselves into two general classes: those which retain their skins, such as the Malaga, Tokay, Muscat, Cornichon, Emperor, etc., and those which slip out of their skins easily, such as the Concord, Niagara, Delaware, Catawba, etc.
  61. It will be found that through proper care grapes can be kept a long time in the fall after they are removed from the vines, provided perfect bunches are obtained and they are picked before they have become too ripe. To preserve such grapes, dip the ends of the stems into melted sealing wax in order to prevent the evaporation of moisture through the stems. Then, in a cool, dry place, lay the bunches out on racks in a single layer, taking care not to crush nor bruise them.
  62. UNFERMENTED GRAPE JUICE WITH WATER.--Grape juice may be made either with or without water. That in which water is used in the making usually requires no diluting when it is served as a beverage. Concord grapes are perhaps used more commonly for the making of grape juice than any other variety, but other kinds, particularly Catawbas and Niagaras, may be used as well.
  63. UNFERMENTED GRAPE JUICE WITHOUT WATER.--When grape juice is made without water, it is both thick and rich. Consequently, it should usually be diluted with water when it is served as a beverage.
  64. PEACHES may be divided into two general classes: those having a yellow skin and those having a white skin. In each of these classes are found both clingstone and freestone peaches; that is, peaches whose pulp adheres tightly to the seed, or stone, and those in which the pulp can be separated easily from the stone. When peaches are purchased for canning or for any use in which it is necessary to remove the seeds, freestones should be selected. Clingstones may be used when the stones are allowed to remain in the fruit, as in pickled peaches, and for jams, preserves, or butters, in which small pieces may be used or the entire peach mashed. Whether to select yellow or white peaches, however, is merely a matter of taste, as some persons prefer one kind and some the other.
  65. Peaches are not satisfactory for jelly making, because they do not contain pectin. However, the juice of peaches makes a very good sirup if it is sweetened and cooked until it is thick. Such sirup is really just as delicious as maple sirup with griddle cakes. Peaches are used to a large extent for canning and are also made into preserves, jams, and butters. In addition, they are much used without cooking, for they are favored by most persons. When they are to be served whole, they should be washed and then wiped with a damp cloth to remove the fuzz. The skins may be removed by blanching the peaches in boiling water or peeling them with a sharp knife. If they are then sliced or cut in any desirable way and served with cream and sugar, they make a delicious dessert.
  66. STEWED PEACHES.--Fresh stewed peaches make a very desirable dessert to serve with simple cake or cookies. Children may very readily eat such dessert without danger of digestive disturbances. Adding a tablespoonful of butter to the hot stewed peaches and then serving them over freshly made toast makes a delightful breakfast dish. The cooked peaches may also be run through a sieve, reheated with a little flour or corn starch to thicken them slightly, and then served hot on buttered toast.
  67. BAKED PEACHES.--When peaches are to be baked, select large firm ones. Wash them thoroughly and cut them into halves, removing the stones. Place the peaches in a shallow pan, fill the cavities with sugar, and dot the top of each half with butter. Set in the oven and bake until the peaches become soft. Serve hot or cold, either with or without cream, as desired.
  68. PEARS, like apples, come in summer and winter varieties. The summer varieties must be utilized during the summer and early fall or must be canned at this time to preserve them for future use. Winter pears, however, may be stored, for they keep like apples. A number of the small varieties of pears are much used for pickling. Pears are most valuable when they are canned and used for sauce. They cannot be used for jelly, because they do not contain sufficient acid nor pectin. The juice from canned pears, because of its mild flavor, is often found to be valuable in the feeding of invalids or persons who have gastric troubles. It is usually advisable to pick pears before they are entirely ripe, for then they may be kept for a considerable length of time and will ripen slowly.
  69. BAKED PEARS.--Although pears are rather mild in flavor, they are delicious when baked if lemon is added. Wash thoroughly pears that are to be baked, cut them into halves, and remove the cores. Place them in a shallow pan, fill the holes in the center with sugar, dot with butter, and place a thin slice of lemon over each piece. Pour a few spoonfuls of water into the pan, set in the oven, and bake until the pears can be easily pierced with a fork. Remove from the oven and serve hot or cold.
  70. PLUMS are among the very strong acid fruits. Some varieties of them seem to be more tart after they are cooked than before, but, as already explained, this condition is due to the fact that the acid contained in the skin and around the seeds is liberated during the cooking. This fruit, of which there are numerous varieties, is generally used for canning, preserving, etc. It does not make jelly successfully in all cases unless some material containing pectin is added. Very firm plums may have the skins removed by blanching if it seems advisable to take them off.
  71. STEWED PLUMS.--Because of the many varieties of plums with their varying degrees of acidity, it is difficult to make a recipe with a quantity of sugar that will suit all kinds. The recipe given here is suitable for medium sour plums, such as egg plums and the common red and yellow varieties. Damsons and green gages will probably require more sugar, while prune plums may require less.
  72. QUINCES are one of the non-perishable fruits. They mature late in the fall and may be kept during the winter in much the same way as apples. While quinces are not used so extensively as most other fruits, there are many uses to which they may be put and much can be done with a small quantity. For instance, various kinds of preserves and marmalades may be made entirely of quinces or of a combination of quinces and some other fruit. They also make excellent jelly. As their flavor is very strong, a small quantity of quince pulp used with apples or some other fruit will give the typical flavor of quinces. When combined with sweet apples, they make a very delicious sauce.
  73. STEWED QUINCES AND APPLES.--The combination of quinces and apples is very delicious. Sweet apples, which are difficult to use as a cooked fruit because of a lack of flavor, may be combined very satisfactorily with quinces, for the quinces impart a certain amount of their strong flavor to the bland apples and thus the flavor of both is improved.
  74. RHUBARB is in reality not a fruit, but it is always considered as such because it is cooked with sugar and served as a fruit. It has the advantage of coming early in the spring before there are many fruits in the market. As it contains a large quantity of oxalic acid, it is very sour and must be cooked with considerable sugar to become palatable, the addition of which makes the food value of cooked rhubarb very high. Rhubarb is much used for pies and is frequently canned for sauce. It is also used as a cheap filler with a more expensive fruit in the making of marmalades, conserves, and jams.
  75. STEWED RHUBARB.--Two methods of stewing rhubarb are in practice, the one to select depending on the way it is preferred. In one method, which keeps the pieces whole, the sugar and water are brought to the boiling point before the rhubarb is added, while in the other, the rhubarb is cooked with water until it is soft and the sugar then added.
  76. Fruits that contain citric acid are grouped together and are known as CITRUS FRUITS. All of these are similar in structure, although they differ in size, as will be observed from Fig. 4. Here the citrus fruits most commonly used are illustrated, the large one in the center being a grapefruit; the two to the left, oranges; the two to the right, lemons; and the two in the front, tangerines.
  77. The majority of citrus fruits contain a fair amount of sugar and a great deal of water; consequently, they are very juicy and refreshing. A few of them, however, such as lemons and limes, contain very little sugar and considerable acid and are therefore extremely sour. In the use of such varieties, sugar must be added to make them palatable.
  78. Grapefruit, also known as shaddock, is a large, pale-yellow fruit belonging to the citrus group. One variety, known as the pomelo, is the kind that is commonly found in the market. It is slightly flattened on both the blossom and stem ends.
  79. SELECTION OF GRAPEFRUIT.--Grapefruit should be selected with care in order that fruit of good quality may be obtained. Some persons think that to be good grapefruit should be large, but it should be remembered that size is not the factor by which to judge the quality. The fruit should be heavy for its size and the skin should be fine-grained and even. Coarse-grained skin, as a rule, is thick and indicates that the pulp is rather pithy and without juice.
  80. PREPARATION OF GRAPEFRUIT.--Different ways of serving grapefruit are in practice, and it is well that these be understood. This is generally considered a rather difficult fruit to eat, but if care is exercised in its preparation for the table it can be eaten with comfort. For preparing grapefruit, a narrow, sharp-bladed paring knife may be used. As is well known, a grapefruit is always cut apart half way between the stem and the blossom ends and a half served to each person.
  81. One method of preparing grapefruit consists in cutting the skin in such a way that the seeds can be taken out and the pulp then easily removed with a spoon. To prepare it in this way, cut the grapefruit into halves, and then, with a sharp knife, cut around the pithy core in the center, cutting off the smallest possible end of each of the sections. With this done, remove the seeds, which will be found firmly lodged near the core and which can be readily pushed out with the point of the knife. Then cut down each side of the skin between the sections so as to separate the pulp from the skin. Around the edge next to the outside skin, cut the pulp in each section with a single jab of the knife, taking care not to cut the skin between the sections. The entire pulp of each section, which will be found to be loose on both sides and ends if the cutting is correctly done, can then be readily removed with a spoon.
  82. In another method of preparing this fruit for the table, all the skin inside of the fruit is removed and nothing but the pulp is left.
  83. SERVING GRAPEFRUIT.--When grapefruit has been properly ripened, it is rather sweet, so that many persons prefer it without sugar; but when sugar is desired, the fruit is very much more delicious if it is prepared some time before it is to be served, the sugar added to it, and the fruit placed in a cool place. If this is done in the evening and the grapefruit is served for breakfast, a large amount of very delicious juice will have collected through the night. At any rate, grapefruit is best if it is sweetened long enough before it is served to give the sugar a chance to penetrate.
  84. LEMONS are a citrus fruit raised in tropical regions. They are shipped to other climates in cases that hold from 180 to 540, depending on the size of the lemons, 300 to the case being a medium and commonly used size. Their quality is judged like that of grapefruit; that is, by their weight, the texture of their skin, and their general color and shape.
  85. ORANGES belong to the group of citrus fruits, but they differ from both lemons and grapefruit in that they contain more sugar and less acid. Two kinds of oranges supply the demands for this fruit, Florida and California oranges. Florida oranges have a skin more the color of lemons and grapefruit and contain seeds, but they are considered to be the finest both as to flavor and quality. California oranges, which have a bright-yellow or orange skin, are seedless and are known as navel oranges. As soon as the Florida season ends, the California season begins; consequently, the market season for this fruit is a lengthy one. The russet of oranges is caused by the bite of an insect on the skin. To be shipped, oranges are packed in cases that will contain from 48 to 400 to the case.
  86. PREPARATION OF ORANGES.--Several attractive ways of preparing oranges for the table when they are to be eaten raw are shown in
  87. When oranges are to be used for salads, or for any purpose in which merely the pulp is desired, as, for instance, orange custard, all the skin between the sections must be removed, as it makes any warm mixture bitter. To secure the pulp without any of the skin, first peel the orange, as shown in Fig. 12, in the same way an apple is peeled, beginning at one end and peeling around and around deeply enough to remove with the skin all the white pithy material under it. If the knife is a sharp one and the peeling is carefully done, there will be little waste of the pulp. When the orange is entirely peeled, cut each section from the skin by passing the knife as closely as possible between the pulp and the skin, as shown in Fig. 13. The sections thus obtained may be used whole or cut into pieces of any desired size.
  88. In addition to grapefruit, lemons, and oranges, the three principal varieties of citrus fruits, this group also includes kumquats, limes, mandarins, and tangerines. These fruits are not of so much importance in the diet as the other varieties, but when they are used as foods they have a food value about equal to that of apples the same in size. They are not in such common use as the citrus fruits already discussed, but it is well for every housewife to know what they are and to what use they can be put.
  89. KUMQUATS are an acid fruit resembling oranges in color but being about the size and shape of small plums. They are used principally for the making of marmalades and jams, and in this use both the skin and the pulp are included.
  90. LIMES look like small lemons. They are very sour and do not contain sugar in any quantity. They are valued chiefly for their juice, which is utilized in the making of drinks, confections, etc.
  91. MANDARINS and TANGERINES are really varieties of oranges and are used in much the same way. They have a very sweet flavor. Their skin does not cling so closely as the skin of oranges. For this reason they are known as glove oranges and are very easily peeled.
  92. Besides the citrus fruits, which may also be regarded as tropical fruits because they grow in tropical regions, there are a number of other fruits that may be conveniently grouped under the heading Tropical Fruits. The best known of these are bananas and pineapples, but numerous others, such as avocados, guavas, nectarines, pomegranates, tamarinds, and mangoes, are also raised in the tropical countries and should be included in this class. The majority of these fruits stand shipment well, but if they are to be shipped to far distant places they must be picked before they become too ripe and must be packed well. As bananas and pineapples are used more extensively than the other tropical fruits, they are discussed here in greater detail; however, enough information is given about the others to enable the housewife to become familiar with them.
  93. BANANAS are a tropical fruit that have become very popular with the people in the North. As they are usually picked and shipped green and then ripened by a process of heating when they are ready to be put on the market, it is possible to obtain them in a very good condition. It should be remembered, however, that they are not ripe enough to eat until all the green color has left the skin. The stem of the bunch may be green, but the bananas themselves should be perfectly yellow. Black spots, which are sometimes found on the skins, indicate overripeness or bruises. When the spots come from overripeness, however, they do not injure the quality of the fruit, unless there are a great many of them; in fact, many persons consider that bananas are better when the skins are black than at any other time.
  94. Just under the skin of the banana is some pithy material that clings to the outside of the fruit and that has a pungent, disagreeable taste.
  95. Bananas are eaten raw more often than in any other way, but many persons find cooked bananas very agreeable. Then, too, it is sometimes claimed that cooked bananas are more digestible than raw ones because of the starch that bananas contain. However, this argument may be discounted, for a well-ripened banana contains such a small quantity of starch that no consideration need be given to it.
  96. BAKED BANANAS.--If bananas are to be cooked, they can be made very appetizing by baking them with a sirup made of vinegar, sugar, and butter. When prepared in this way, they should be cut in two lengthwise, and then baked in a shallow pan, as Fig. 15 shows.
  97. Banana Fritters.--Delicious fritters can be made with bananas as a foundation. The accompanying recipe, if carefully followed, will result in a dish that will be appetizing, especially to those who are fond of this fruit.
  98. Pineapples are grown in the southern part of the United States, on the islands off the southeastern coast, and in Hawaii. They vary in size according to the age of the plants. It requires from 18 to 20 months for the fruit to develop, and the plants yield only four or five crops. Much of this fruit is canned where it is grown, but as it is covered with a heavy skin it will tolerate shipping long distances very well. It is shipped to the market in cases that contain from 24 to 48 pineapples to the case. Usually, for a few weeks during the summer, the price of fresh pineapples is reasonable enough to warrant canning them.
  99. The food value of pineapples is slightly lower than that of oranges and apples. However, pineapples have a great deal of flavor, and for this reason they are very valuable in the making of desserts, preserves, marmalades, and beverages of various kinds. It is said that the combination of pineapple and lemon will flavor a greater amount of food than any other fruit combined. Another characteristic of pineapples is that they contain a ferment that acts upon protein material and therefore is sometimes thought to aid considerably in the digestion of food. The probabilities are that this ferment really produces very little action in the stomach, but its effect upon protein material can readily be observed by attempting to use raw pineapple in the making of a gelatine dessert. If the pineapple is put in raw, the gelatine will not solidify; but if the pineapple is heated sufficiently to kill this ferment, it has no effect whatsoever upon the gelatine.
  100. SELECTING PINEAPPLES.--When pineapples are to be selected, care should be exercised to see that they are ripe. The most certain way of determining this fact is to pull out the center leaves of each pineapple that is chosen. As shown in Fig. 16, grasp the pineapple with one hand and then with the other pull out, one at a time, several of the center leaves of the tuft at the top. If the fruit is ripe a sharp jerk will usually remove each leaf readily, but the harder the leaves pull, the greener the pineapple is.
  101. PREPARATION OF PINEAPPLE.--Some persons consider pineapple a difficult fruit to prepare, but no trouble will be experienced if the method illustrated in Figs. 17 to 19 is followed. Place the pineapple on a hard surface, such as a wooden cutting board, and with a large sharp knife cut off the tuft of leaves at the top. Then, as shown in Fig. 17, cut the pineapple into 1/2-inch slices crosswise of the head. When the entire pineapple has been sliced, peel each slice with a sharp paring knife, as in Fig. 18. With the peeling removed, it will be observed that each slice contains a number of eyes. Remove these with the point of a knife, as Fig. 19 shows. After cutting out the core from the center of each slice, the slices may be allowed to remain whole or may be cut into pieces of any desirable size or shape. Pineapple prepared in this way is ready either for canning or for desserts in which it is used fresh.
  102. PINEAPPLE PUDDING.--One of the most satisfactory desserts made from pineapple is the pudding given here. It is in reality a corn-starch pudding in which grated pineapple is used for the flavoring.
  103. AVOCADOS.--The avocado, which is also known as the alligator pear, is a large pear-shaped, pulpy fruit raised principally in the
  104. GUAVAS.--The guava is a tropical fruit that is extensively grown in the southern part of the United States. Guavas come in two varieties
  105. NECTARINES.--The tropical fruit called the nectarine is really a variety of peach, but it differs from the common peach in that it has a smooth, waxy skin. Also, the flesh of the nectarine is firmer and has a stronger flavor than that of the peach. Nectarines are not shipped to the northern markets to any extent, but they are canned in exactly the same way as peaches are and can be secured in this form.
  106. PERSIMMONS.--The persimmon is a semitropical plum-like fruit, globular in shape and an orange-red or yellow in color. It comes in many varieties, but few of them find their way into the northern markets. The Japanese persimmon, which resembles a tomato in color, is the variety most frequently purchased. Persimmons are characterized by a great deal of very pungent acid, which has a puckery effect until the fruit is made sweet and edible by exposure to the frost. In localities where they are plentiful, persimmons are extensively used and are preserved for use during the winter season.
  107. POMEGRANATES.--The pomegranate is about as large as a full-sized apple and has a hard reddish-yellow rind. Most varieties contain many seeds and a comparatively small amount of red edible pulp. Pomegranates of various kinds are grown in the southern part of the United States and in other warm climates. They are used extensively in the localities where they are grown and are much enjoyed by persons who learn to care for their flavor. A cooling drink made from their pulp finds much favor.
  108. TAMARINDS AND MANGOES.--Although tamarinds and mangoes are practically unknown outside of tropical countries, they are considered to be very delicious fruits and are used extensively in their native localities.
  109. CANTALOUPES AND MUSKMELONS.--The variety of melons known as muskmelons consists of a juicy, edible fruit that is characterized by a globular shape and a ribbed surface. Cantaloupes are a variety of muskmelons, but the distinction between them is sometimes difficult to understand. For the most part, these names are used interchangeably with reference to melons.
  110. If melons suitable for the table are desired, they should be selected with care. To be just at the right stage, the blossom end of the melon should be a trifle soft when pressed with the fingers. If it is very soft, the melon is perhaps too ripe; but if it does not give with pressure, the melon is too green.
  111. Various ways of serving muskmelons and cantaloupes are in practice.
  112. CASABA MELONS.--The variety of melons known as casaba, or honeydew, melons are a cross between a cucumber and a cantaloupe. They have white flesh and a rind that is smoother than the rind of cantaloupes. Melons of this kind are raised in the western part of the United States, but as they stand shipment very well, they can usually be obtained in the market in other regions. They are much enjoyed by those who are fond of this class of fruit. Their particular advantage is that they come later in the season than cantaloupes and muskmelons, and thus can be obtained for the table long after these other fruits are out of season. Casaba melons may be served in the same ways as cantaloupes.
  113. WATERMELONS.--A very well-known type of melon is the watermelon. It is grown principally in warm climates of the Southern States, as the season in the North is not sufficiently long to allow it to develop. This is a large fruit, having a smooth green skin that is often mottled or striped, and a pinkish pulp containing many seeds and having a sweet, watery juice. The large amount of water contained in this fruit makes its food value very low, it being lower in this respect than muskmelons and cantaloupes. The volatile oil it contains, which is responsible for its flavor, proves irritating to some persons who eat it.
  114. Watermelon is delicious when it is served ice cold. Therefore, before it is served, it should be kept on ice for a sufficient time to allow it to become thoroughly cold. Then it may be cut in any desirable way. If it is cut in slices, the slices should be trimmed so that only the pink pulp that is edible is served, the green rind being discarded. As an appetizer, watermelon is delicious when cut into pieces and served in a cocktail glass with fresh mint chopped fine and sprinkled over the top. Small pieces of watermelon cut with a French vegetable cutter make a very attractive garnish for fruit salads and other fruit mixtures.
  115. Cocktails made of a combination of fruits are often served as the first course of a meal, usually a luncheon or a dinner, to precede the soup course. In warm weather, they are an excellent substitute for heavy cocktails made of lobster or crab, and they may even be used to replace the soup course. The fruits used for this purpose should be the more acid ones, for the acids and flavors are intended to serve as an appetizer, or the same purpose for which the hot and highly seasoned soups are taken. Therefore, they are seldom made sweet and are not taken for their food value. Besides being refreshing appetizers, they afford a hostess an opportunity to carry out a certain color scheme in a meal. Many kinds of fruit may be combined into cocktails, but directions for the cocktails that are usually made are here given. Fruit cocktails should always be served ice cold.
  116. GRAPEFRUIT COCKTAIL.--The cocktail here explained may be served in stemmed glasses or in the shells of the grapefruit. If the fruit shells are to be used, the grapefruit should be cut into two parts, half way between the blossom and the stem ends, the fruit removed, and the edges of the shell then notched. This plan of serving a cocktail should be adopted only when small grapefruits are used, for if the shells are large more fruit will have to be used than is agreeable for a cocktail.
  117. SUMMER COCKTAIL.--As strawberries and pineapples can be obtained fresh at the same time during the summer, they are often used together in a cocktail. When sweetened slightly with powdered sugar and allowed to become ice cold, these fruits make a delicious combination.
  118. FRUIT COCKTAIL.--A fruit cocktail proper is made by combining a number of different kinds of fruit, such as bananas, pineapple, oranges, and maraschino cherries. As shown in Fig. 20, such a cocktail is served in a stemmed glass set on a small plate. Nothing more delicious than this can be prepared for the first course of a dinner or a luncheon that is to be served daintily. Its advantage is that it can be made at almost any season of the year with these particular fruits.
  119. The fruits that have been discussed up to this point are fresh fruits; that is, they are placed on the markets, and consequently can be obtained, in their fresh state. However, there are a number of fruits that are dried before they are put on the market, and as they can be obtained during all seasons they may be used when fresh fruits are out of season or as a substitute for canned fruits when the household supply is low. The chief varieties of dried fruits are dates, figs, prunes, which are dried plums, and raisins, which are dried grapes. Apples, apricots, and peaches are also dried in large quantities and are much used in place of these fruits when they cannot be obtained in their fresh form. Discussions of the different varieties of dried fruits are here given, together with recipes showing how some of them may be used.
  120. DATES, which are the fruit of the date palm, are not only very nutritious but well liked by most persons. They are oblong in shape and have a single hard seed that is grooved on one side. As dates contain very little water and a great deal of sugar, their food value is high, being more than five times that of apples and oranges. They are also valuable in the diet because of their slightly laxative effect. When added to other food, such as cakes, hot breads, etc., they provide a great deal of nutriment.
  121. The finest dates on the market come from Turkey and the Eastern countries. They are prepared for sale at the places where they grow, being put up in packages that weigh from 1/2 to 1 pound, as well as in large boxes from which they can be sold in bulk. It is very important that all dates, whether bought in packages or in bulk, be thoroughly washed before they are eaten. While those contained in packages do not collect dirt after they are packed, they are contaminated to a certain extent by the hands of the persons who pack them. To be most satisfactory, dates should first be washed in hot water and then have cold water run over them. If they are to be stuffed, they should be thoroughly dried between towels or placed in a single layer on pans to allow the water to evaporate. While the washing of dates undoubtedly causes the loss of a small amount of food material, it is, nevertheless, a wise procedure.
  122. Dates can be put to many valuable uses in the diet. They are much used in cakes, muffins, and hot breads and in fillings for cakes and cookies. Several kinds of delicious pastry, as well as salads and sandwiches, are also made with dates. Their use as a confection is probably the most important one, as they are very appetizing when stuffed with nuts, candy, and such foods.
  123. FIGS are a small pear-shaped fruit grown extensively in Eastern countries and to some extent in the western part of the United States.
  124. Dried figs are found on the market both as pressed and pulled figs.
  125. STEWED FIGS.--If pulled figs can be secured, they may be stewed to be served as a sauce. When prepared in this way, they will be found to make a highly nutritious and delightful breakfast fruit or winter dessert.
  126. STEAMED FIGS.--When figs are steamed until they are soft and then served with plain or whipped cream, they make a delightful dessert. To prepare them in this way, wash the desired number and remove the stems. Place them in a steamer over boiling water and steam them until they are soft. Remove from the stove, allow them to cool, and serve with cream.
  127. PRUNES are the dried fruit of any one of several varieties of plum trees and are raised mostly in Southern Europe and California. In their fresh state, they are purple in color, but they become darker during their drying. They are priced and purchased according to size, being graded with a certain number to the pound, just as lemons and oranges are graded with a certain number to the case. In food value they are about equal to dates and figs. They contain very little acid, but are characterized by a large quantity of easily digested sugar. They also have a laxative quality that makes them valuable in the diet.
  128. STEWED PRUNES.--A simple way in which to prepare prunes is to stew them and then add sugar to sweeten them. Stewed prunes may be served as a sauce with cake of some kind or they may be used as a breakfast fruit.
  129. STUFFED PRUNES.--After prunes have been stewed, they may have the seeds removed and then be filled with peanut butter. Stuffed in this way and served with whipped cream, as shown in Fig. 21, or merely the prune juice, they make an excellent dessert.
  130. PRUNE WHIP.--A very dainty prune dessert can be made from stewed prunes by reducing the prunes to a pulp and then adding the whites of eggs. Directions for this dessert follow
  131. RAISINS are the dried fruit of various kinds of grapes that contain considerable sugar and are cured in the sun or in an oven. They come principally from the Mediterranean region and from California. They have an extensive use in cookery, both as a confection and an ingredient in cakes, puddings, and pastry. In food value, raisins are very high and contain sugar in the form of glucose; however, their skins are coarse cellulose and for this reason are likely to be injurious to children if taken in too large quantities. They are also valuable as a laxative and in adding variety to the diet if they are well cooked before they are served.
  132. Apples, apricots, and peaches are fruits that are used extensively in their dried form. They enable the housewife to supply her family with fruit during seasons when it is impossible to obtain fresh fruit. They may also be used to take the place of canned fruit, especially when the supply is low or has been exhausted. Besides their use as a sauce, they may be used for pies and various desserts.
  133. These fruits, which may all be used in just the same way, should be soaked before stewing and should be stewed according to the directions for the preparation and cooking of prunes. Then sufficient sugar to make them sweet should be added. If they are desired for sauce, they may be used without any further preparation. However, they may be substituted for fresh fruit in recipes that call for any of them or for prunes. For instance, dried apricots, after being stewed, may be passed through a sieve to make a purée and may then be used to make apricot whip or soufflé according to the directions given for other similar desserts. The flavor of apricots is very strong and a small amount of the pulp will flavor a large quantity of ice cream, sherbet, or water ice.

Converted from "8mpcb10.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK MISS PARLOA'S NEW COOK BOOK
MISS PARLOA'S
NEW COOK BOOK,
A GUIDE TO MARKETING AND COOKING.
BY MARIA PARLOA,
PRINCIPAL OF THE SCHOOL OF COOKING IN BOSTON
ILLUSTRATED.
PREFACE.
NOTE.
CONTENTS.
THE PUBLISHERS' COMPLIMENTS TO THE READER.
MISS PARLOA'S NEW COOK BOOK.
MARKETING.
BEEF.
EXPLANATION OF DIAGRAM NO. 1.
BOSTON.
PHILADELPHIA.
NEW YORK.
EXPLANATION OF DIAGRAM NO. 16.
BOSTON.
NEW YORK.
PHILADELPHIA.
EXPLANATION OF DIAGRAM NO. 17.
BOSTON.
NEW YORK.
PHILADELPHIA.
MUTTON.
EXPLANATION OF DIAGRAM NO. 18.
LAMB.
VEAL.
PORK.
POULTRY AND GAME.
FISH.
VEGETABLES.
WHEN IN SEASON.
SPINACH.
GROCERIES.
CARE OF FOOD.
KITCHEN FURNISHING.
SOUPS.
FISH.
OYSTERS.
LOBSTER.
OTHER SHELL-FISH.
MEATS.
BOILING.
ROASTING.
BROILING.
MISCELLANEOUS MODES.
POULTRY AND GAME.
ENTREES.
SALADS.
MEAT AND FISH SAUCES.
FORCE-MEAT AND GARNISHES.
VEGETABLES.
PIES AND PUDDINGS.
HOT PUDDINGS.
COLD PUDDINGS.
SAUCES.
DESSERT.
CAKE.
PRESERVING.
PICKLES AND KETCHUP.
POTTING.
BREAKFAST AND TEA.
MUFFINS AND CAKES.
EGGS.
ECONOMICAL DISHES.
BREAD.
DRINKS.
HOW
BILLS OF FARE.
BREAKFAST.
DINNERS FOR TWELVE.
GAME DINNER.
SUPPER FOR FIFTY.
CHILDREN'S PARTY (FIFTY).
FAMILY DINNERS-SPRING.
FAMILY DINNERS---SUMMER.
FAMILY DINNERS--FALL.
FAMILY DINNERS-WINTER.
ILLUSTRATIONS.
INDEX
BREAD,
BREAKFAST AND TEA.
CAKE,
CARE OF FOOD,
DESSERT.
DRINKS,
ECONOMICAL DISHES.
ENTREES.
FISH,
FOOD, CARE OF
GAME,
GROCERIES,
KITCHEN FURNISHING,
LOBSTER,
MARKETING,
MEATS,
OMELETS,
OYSTERS,
PICKLED,
PIES,
POTTING,
POULTRY,
PRESERVING,
PUDDINGS.
SALAD DRESSING,
SALADS,
SAUCES,
SOUPS,
VEAL,
VEGETABLES,
END OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK MISS PARLOA'S NEW COOK BOOK
START**THE SMALL PRINT!**FOR PUBLIC DOMAIN EBOOKS**START
BEFORE!* YOU USE OR READ THIS EBOOK
ABOUT PROJECT GUTENBERG-TM EBOOKS
LIMITED WARRANTY; DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES
THIS EBOOK IS OTHERWISE PROVIDED TO YOU "AS-IS". NO OTHER
INDEMNITY
WHAT IF YOU WANT TO SEND MONEY EVEN IF YOU DON'T HAVE TO?

Converted from "8rmod10.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK, MADE-OVER DISHES
MADE-OVER DISHES
BY MRS. S. T. RORER
CONTENTS
PREFACE
STOCK
COOKED FISH
MEAT
BEEF--UNCOOKED
BEEF--COOKED
MUTTON--UNCOOKED
MUTTON--COOKED
CHICKEN--UNCOOKED
CHICKEN--COOKED
GAME
BREAD
EGGS
POTATOES
POTATOES--COLD BOILED
CHEESE
SAUCES
SALADS
CEREALS
VEGETABLES
FRUITS
SOUR MILK AND CREAM
INDEX
END OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK, MADE-OVER DISHES
START**THE SMALL PRINT!**FOR PUBLIC DOMAIN EBOOKS**START
BEFORE!* YOU USE OR READ THIS EBOOK
ABOUT PROJECT GUTENBERG-TM EBOOKS
LIMITED WARRANTY; DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES
THIS EBOOK IS OTHERWISE PROVIDED TO YOU "AS-IS". NO OTHER
INDEMNITY
WHAT IF YOU WANT TO SEND MONEY EVEN IF YOU DON'T HAVE TO?

Converted from "8tgcm10.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK, TRAITE' GENERAL DE LA CUISINE MAIGRE
AUGUSTE HELIE
PREFACE
CHATILLON-PLESSIS.
A L'AUTEUR
ENVOI
INTRODUCTION
A. HELIE.
QUATRIEME PARTIE
LES ENTREMETS DE LEGUMES
MENUS DE DINERS
MENUS DE DEJEUNERS
MENUS DE DINERS
MENUS DE DEJEUNERS
MENUS DE DINERS
PROLOGUE
FIN DES HORS-D'OEUVRE.
TABLE ALPHABETIQUE DES MATIERES
BOUILLONS, SOUPES ET POTAGES
B
C
E
J
M
P
Q
S
ENTREES ET RELEVES
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
L
M
O
P
R
S
T
V
S
ENTREMETS DE LEGUMES
C
F
G
H
L
O
P
R
S
T
V
ENTREMETS SUCRES
B
C
D
F
G
M
P
R
S
T
MENUS
HORS-D'OEUVRE ET SAVOUREUX
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
L
M
N
O
P
R
S
T
V
GRAVURES
END OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK, TRAITE' GENERAL DE LA CUISINE MAIGRE
START**THE SMALL PRINT!**FOR PUBLIC DOMAIN EBOOKS**START
BEFORE!* YOU USE OR READ THIS EBOOK
ABOUT PROJECT GUTENBERG-TM EBOOKS
LIMITED WARRANTY; DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES
THIS EBOOK IS OTHERWISE PROVIDED TO YOU "AS-IS". NO OTHER
INDEMNITY
WHAT IF YOU WANT TO SEND MONEY EVEN IF YOU DON'T HAVE TO?

Converted from "ckdec10.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
START**THE SMALL PRINT!**FOR PUBLIC DOMAIN ETEXTS**START
BEFORE!* YOU USE OR READ THIS ETEXT
ABOUT PROJECT GUTENBERG-TM ETEXTS
LIMITED WARRANTY; DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES
THIS ETEXT IS OTHERWISE PROVIDED TO YOU "AS-IS". NO OTHER
INDEMNITY
WHAT IF YOU WANT TO SEND MONEY EVEN IF YOU DON'T HAVE TO?
A. V.
J. O."
THE FOURTH DAY

Converted from "ckggs10.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
  1 yolk of an egg
  2 tablespoonfuls of butter
  2 tablespoonfuls of flour
  4 tablespoonfuls of butter
  6 eggs
  6 eggs
  6 slices of bread
  6 eggs
  6 eggs
  6 eggs
  6 eggs
  6 eggs
  6 hard-boiled eggs
  6 eggs

Converted from "cookh10.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK DOMESTIC COOKERY
DOMESTIC COOKERY, USEFUL RECEIPTS, AND HINTS TO YOUNG HOUSEKEEPERS.
BY ELIZABETH E. LEA
ADVERTISEMENT TO THIRD EDITION.
INTRODUCTORY ADDRESS.
MEATS AND POULTRY.
SOUPS.
VEGETABLES.
CAKES.
LARD, TALLOW, SOAP AND CANDLES.
MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS.
SIMPLE REMEDIES.
FOOD FOR THE SICK.
DOMESTICS.
REMARKS.
CULTIVATION OF FLOWERS.
INDEX
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
N.
O.
P.
Q.
R.
S.
T.
V.
W.
Y.
END OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK DOMESTIC COOKERY
START**THE SMALL PRINT!**FOR PUBLIC DOMAIN EBOOKS**START
BEFORE!* YOU USE OR READ THIS EBOOK
ABOUT PROJECT GUTENBERG-TM EBOOKS
LIMITED WARRANTY; DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES
THIS EBOOK IS OTHERWISE PROVIDED TO YOU "AS-IS". NO OTHER
INDEMNITY
WHAT IF YOU WANT TO SEND MONEY EVEN IF YOU DON'T HAVE TO?

Converted from "fvdsh11.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK FAVORITE DISHES
FAVORITE DISHES
A COLUMBIAN AUTOGRAPH SOUVENIR COOKERY BOOK.
OVER THREE HUNDRED AUTOGRAPH RECIPES, AND TWENTY-THREE PORTRAITS,
COMPILED BY CARRIE V. SHUMAN, CHICAGO, 1893
TEA
CHOCOLATE
COCOA
COFFEE
BREAD
STEAMED BROWN BREAD. (A LA OAKLAND FARM.)
LIGHT BREAD.
FRANKLIN GEMS.
BAKING POWDER BISCUIT.
FRENCH ROLLS.
RISEN MUFFINS.
BREAKFAST ROLLS.
POCKET-BOOK ROLLS.
POTATO ROLLS.
GRAHAM GEMS.
CORN CAKE.
BACHELORS' CORN PONE.
CORN BREAD.
CORN MEAL MUFFINS.
BAKED CORN BREAD.
STEAMED BROWN BREAD.
RAISED BROWN BREAD.
BOSTON BROWN BREAD.
STRAWBERRY SHORT CAKE.
STRAWBERRY SHORT CAKE.
ORANGE SHORT CAKE.
SALLY LUNN.
HAM TOAST.
OAT MEAL
BREWIS.
SANDWICH DRESSING.
OYSTERS
BOUILLON
SOUP
AMBER SOUP.
MOCK-TURTLE SOUP.
JULIENNE SOUP.
NOODLE SOUP.
CORN SOUP.
CELERY SOUP.
OYSTER SOUP.
BISQUE OF CRAB OR CRAWFISH.
POTATO PUREE.
ASPARAGUS SOUP.
TOMATO SOUP.
TOMATO SOUP.
GUMBO SOUP.
CHICKEN GUMBO WITH OYSTERS.
OKRA SOUP.
BLACK BEAN SOUP.
BEAN SOUP.
SOUP REGENCY.
PEA SOUP.
CLAM CHOWDER.
CLAM CHOWDER.
FISH
BAKED SHAD.
CUBION.
COD FISH BALLS.
SALMON CROQUETTES.
SHELL FISH
MARYLAND TERRAPINS.
TERRAPIN WHITE STEW.
WHITE STEW OF TERRAPIN.
TERRAPIN CROQUETTES.
DEVILED LOBSTER.
LOBSTER CROQUETTES.
DEVILED CRABS.
DEVILED CRABS.
DEVILED CRABS.
SOFT SHELL CRABS.
FROG LEGS.
CREAMED OYSTERS.
"LITTLE PIGS IN BLANKETS."
ESCALLOPED OYSTERS.
CREAMED SHRIMPS.
SAUCES
SAUCE MOUSSELINE.
BOILED EGG SAUCE.
TARTAR SAUCE.
MEATS
FILET OF BEEF.
ROAST BEEF.
YORKSHIRE PUDDING.
ROULARDS.
BEEF LOAF.
HASH.
MUTTON CHOPS.
ROAST LAMB.
LAMB CHOPS.
POTTED TONGUE.
VEAL CROQUETTES.
VEAL CROQUETTES.
VEAL POT PIE
CASSELETTES DE VEAU.
VEAL FRICASSEE.
VEAL LOAF
SWEETBREADS
SWEET-BREAD CROQUETTES.
SWEETBREADS AND OYSTERS.
SWEETBREADS AND MUSHROOMS,
SWEETBREADS EN COQUILLE.
SWEETBREAD PATTIES.
POULTRY
BOILED CHICKEN.
CHICKEN LIVERS, EN BROCHETTE, WITH BACON.
POLLO CON ARROZ.
POLLO CON TOMATES.
TAMALES DE CHILE.
COQUILLES DE VOLAILLE.
CROQUETTES.
CHICKEN CROQUETTES.
CURRY OF CHICKEN IN PUFFS.
PILAUF.
FRICASSEE CHICKEN.
A GOOD ROAST TURKEY.
DRESSING FOR TURKEY.
HOW TO COOK CHESTNUTS.
GAME
WILD DUCK IN MARYLAND.
SNIPE AND WOODCOCK BROILED ON TOAST.
PRAIRIE CHICKEN.
VEGETABLES
VEGETABLE OYSTER.
CAULIFLOWER WITH TARTAR SAUCE.
SCALLOPED POTATOES.
ESCALLOPED SWEET POTATOES.
POTATO CROQUETTES.
POTATOES--MASHED.
BOSTON BAKED BEANS.
LIMA BEANS
BAKED TOMATOES.
BAKED TOMATOES.
STEWED TOMATOES.
BEETS.
PARSNIPS--STEWED.
STUFFED GREEN PEPPERS.
CORN OYSTERS.
FRIED EGG PLANT.
MACARONI--GOOD.
RICE AS A VEGETABLE.
CRANBERRIES.
EGGS
PLAIN OMELET WITH EIGHT EGGS.
GREEN CORN OMELET.
OMELET WITH HAM.
OMELET--PLAIN.
STUFFED EGGS.
DEVILED EGGS FOR LUNCHEON OR PICNICS.
ESCALLOPED EGGS.
HOW TO TAKE EGG.
SALAD
LOBSTER SALAD.
CHICKEN SALAD.
SOUTHERN CHICKEN SALAD. SPLENDID--TRY IT ONCE.
CHICKEN SALAD.
VEGETABLE SALAD.
STRING BEAN SALAD. (FRENCH RECIPE.)
EXCELLENT POTATO SALAD.
TOMATO SALAD.
TOMATO SALAD. (FOR USE WHEN FRESH TOMATOES ARE NOT IN THE MARKET.)
CABBAGE SALAD.
FISH SALAD.
SALAD DRESSING.
DOUGHNUTS & FRITTERS
FAMOUS DOUGHNUTS
RAISED DOUGHNUTS.
DOUGHNUTS.
CALLAS. A CREOLE CAKE EATEN HOT WITH COFFEE.
APPLE FRITTERS.
CORN FRITTERS.
CLAM FRITTERS.
WHITE CORN MEAL CAKES FOR BREAKFAST. (A RHODE ISLAND DISH.)
CORN GRIDDLE CAKES OR OLD VIRGINIA SLAP JACKS.
FRIED MUSH.
SUPERIOR WAFFLES.
MEXICAN ENCHILADAS
PRESERVES
TOMATO CONSERVE.
COMPOTE OF APPLES.
STEAMED PEACHES.
QUINCE PRESERVES.
WATERMELON PRESERVES.
BLACKBERRY JAM.
CANNED SPICED BLACKBERRIES.
SPICED GREEN GRAPES.
ORANGE JELLY.
CURRANT JELLY.
CRAB APPLE JELLY.
PICKLES AND CATSUP
PICKLED ONIONS.
MIXED PICKLES.
CUCUMBER PICKLES.
GREEN CUCUMBER PICKLE.
RIPE CUCUMBER PICKLE.
GOOSEBERRY CATSUP.
CABBAGE PICKLE.
PICALILLY.
SWEET PICKLED PEACHES.
CHOW-CHOW PICKLES.
MUSTARD CHOW-CHOW.
CHOW-CHOW.
CHEESE
CHEESE FONDA.
CHEESE STICKS.
PIES
LEMON PIE.
IDEAL LEMON PIE.
LEMON PIE.
LEMON PIE.
PUMPKIN PIE.
APPLE CUSTARD PIE.
CREAM PIE.
CREAM PIE
APPLE PIE.
PIE CRUST.
MINCE MEAT.
MINCE MEAT.
PUDDING
GRAHAM CHRISTMAS PUDDING.
GRAHAM PUDDING.
LADY ROSS FIG PUDDING.
ALEXANDRE PUDDING.
PLUM PUDDING.
ENGLISH PLUM PUDDING.
ENGLISH PLUM PUDDING.
VEGETABLE PLUM PUDDING.
PLUM PUDDING
CHRISTMAS PLUM PUDDING.
CHERRY PUDDING.
BREAD AND BUTTER PUDDING.
DELICATE INDIAN PUDDING.
BAKED INDIAN PUDDING.
PRUNE ROLL
PRUNE PUDDING.
PRUNE PUDDING.
PRUNE PUDDING.
BREAD PUDDING.
CHOCOLATE PUDDING.
DANISH PUDDING.
DELICIOUS PUDDING.
SUET PUDDING.
SUET PUDDING.
QUEEN PUDDING.
STEAM PUDDING.
STEAM PUDDING.
BAKED HUCKLEBERRY PUDDING.
MINNIE'S LEMON PUDDING.
CUP PUDDING
ITALIAN ROLL
CHAPERONE PUDDING.
APPLE PUDDING.
BAKED APPLE DUMPLING.
FOAM SAUCE.
CAKE
SPONGE CAKE.
SPONGE CAKE.
SPONGE CAKE.
NORTH DAKOTA SPONGE CAKE.
CHAPERONE SPONGE CAKE.
NEW ENGLAND RAISED LOAF CAKE.
FRENCH LOAF CAKE.
GRANDMOTHER'S BREAD CAKE.
OLD VIRGINIA BREAD CAKE.
BREAD CAKE.
CORN STARCH CAKE.
EXPOSITION ORANGE CAKE.
ORANGE CAKE.
ANGEL FOOD.
ANGEL CAKE.
SUNSHINE CAKE.
ELECTION CAKE. (ONE HUNDRED YEARS OLD.)
CONNECTICUT ELECTION CAKE.
ALMOND CREAM CAKE.
VELVET CAKE.
CARAMEL CAKE.
A CARAMEL CAKE.
ROLL JELLY CAKE.
CHOCOLATE CAKE.
GEORGIE'S CAKE.
CHESS CAKE.
FRUIT CAKE.
ENGLISH FRUIT CAKE.
FRUIT CAKE.
FRUIT CAKE.
SALLY WHITE CAKE.
DELICATE CAKE.
DELICATE CAKE.
WHITE CAKE.
WALNUT CAKE.
NUT CAKE.
NUT CAKE.
NUT CAKE.
PECAN CAKE.
CAKE MADE WITH CREAM.
CREAM FROSTING.
ALMOND ICING.
SOFT GINGERBREAD.
COLUMBIAN GINGER CAKE.
GINGERBREAD
SOFT GINGERBREAD.
LOAF GINGER CAKE.
COOKIES
HERMITS OR FRUIT COOKIES.
COOKIES.
"CORINITA" COOKIES.
COOKIES.
GINGER COOKIES.
GINGER SNAPS.
FRENCH JUMBLES.
SAND TARTS.
LADY FINGERS.
DESSERTS CREAMS JELLIES CUSTARDS
PINEAPPLE SPONGE
PEACH SPONGE.
HAMBURG CREAM.
CHOCOLAT MERINGUE.
BAVARIAN CREAM.
GELATINE CREAM.
NOB HILL PUDDING.
APPLE CHARLOTTE.
CHARLOTTE DE RUSSE.
CHARLOTTE RUSSE.
CHARLOTTE RUSSE.
CHARLOTTE RUSSE.
STRAWBERRY BLANC MANGE.
SNOW PUDDING.
WINE OR GELATINE JELLY
FRUIT JELLY
A DAINTY DESSERT.
TAMALES DE DULCE.
A CHEAP DESSERT.
BANANAS IN JELLY.
FLOATING ISLAND.
BOILED CUSTARD.
SNOW BALLS.
LEMON CUSTARD.
ICE CREAM
CARAMEL ICE CREAM.
TUTTI FRUTTI ICE CREAM.
VANILLA ICE CREAM.
MARASCHINO ICE CREAM.
CANDY
CHOCOLATE CARAMELS.
FUDGES.
CREAM CANDY.
PUNCH
ROMAINE.
ROMAN PUNCH.
KIRSCH PUNCH.
APRICOT SORBET.
PINEAPPLE SHERBET.
ORANGE WATER ICE.
BEVERAGES
EGG NOGG.
OUR GRANDMOTHER'S SYLLABUB.
CLARET PUNCH.
BEEF TEA FOR CHILDREN.
CHAFING DISH
OMELET.
WELSH RAREBIT.
CHICKEN WITH CURRIE.
MOCK TERRAPIN.
CONTENTS
BREAD.
SOUP.
FISH.
SHELL FISH.
SAUCES.
MEATS.
SWEETBREADS.
POULTRY.
GAME.
VEGETABLES.
EGGS.
SALAD.
DOUGHNUTS AND FRITTERS.
PRESERVES.
PICKLES AND CATSUP.
CHEESE.
PIES.
PUDDING.
CAKE.
COOKIES.
DESSERTS.
ICE CREAM.
CANDY.
PUNCH.
BEVERAGES.
CHAFING DISH.
END OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK FAVORITE DISHES
START**THE SMALL PRINT!**FOR PUBLIC DOMAIN EBOOKS**START
BEFORE!* YOU USE OR READ THIS EBOOK
ABOUT PROJECT GUTENBERG-TM EBOOKS
LIMITED WARRANTY; DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES
THIS EBOOK IS OTHERWISE PROVIDED TO YOU "AS-IS". NO OTHER
INDEMNITY
WHAT IF YOU WANT TO SEND MONEY EVEN IF YOU DON'T HAVE TO?

Converted from "mitzi11.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
  1 chicken, cut in serving pieces dehydrated onion soup mix
  1 teaspoon salt or to taste
  1 chicken cut in serving pieces
  1 teaspoon salt
  1 package (7-1/2-ounces) stuffing mix, prepared as directed on package
  1 chicken, cut in serving pieces
  1 egg, beaten
  1 teaspoon salt or to taste
  1 cup sherry
  1 chicken, cut in serving pieces
  1 tablespoon olive or vegetable oil
  1 teaspoon lemon juice salt and ground pepper to taste lemon slices, for garnish Place chicken between sheets of plastic wrap and pound to 1/2 inch thickness. If using thin sliced boneless Roaster breast, omit placing in plastic wrap and pounding. Brush cutlets lightly with oil, Grill over hot coals 3 to 4 minutes per side, rotating to form crosshatch marks characteristic of paillards, or broil 3 to 4 minutes per side or until cooked through. Place butter, basil, garlic and lemon juice in a small pan and melt on the side of the grill. Spoon butter over paillards and season with salt and pepper. Garnish with lemon slices. EASY OVEN CHICKENServes 4 This recipe has been one of my favorites since college days. The true chicken flavor comes out with just a touch of garlic.
  1 chicken, cut in serving pieces
  1 teaspoon salt or to taste
  1 small clove garlic, minced
  1 teaspoon salt or to taste
  1 whole boneless roaster breast salt and ground pepper to taste
  1 can (4-ounces) whole small mushrooms (with liquid)
  2 fresh young chickens (2-4 pounds); or 6 pounds fresh chicken parts, preferably dark meat portions. (As I mentioned earlier, young chickens will not provide as rich a flavor as the older birds but the taste will still be good.) Cooking times for meat will vary from 3 hours for stewing hens or spent fowl, to 1-1/2 hours for 2 smaller birds to slightly less time for parts. In each case, time from beginning of simmer and return bones to stock for an additional 1/2 hour after you've removed the meat.
  4 cups chicken broth
  6 tablespoons butter or margarine, divided
  8 skinless, boneless chicken breast halves
  8 flour tortillas
  10 minutes per pound. Halfway through cooking time, turn drumsticks over, spoon on remaining dressing and sprinkle with reserved crumb mixture. Cover with a double thickness of paper towels. Complete cooking, removing paper towels during last 2 minutes. Let stand, uncovered, 5 minutes before serving.
  10 minutes per pound. Halfway through cooking time, turn breasts over and stir mixture. Re-cover with wax paper and microwave remaining time. Let stand 5 minutes. Stir sour cream and flour into tomato mixture. Cover; microwave at HIGH 1 minute. Stir and let stand 2 minutes. Pour over chicken breasts.
  12 grams. Cholesterol 155 mg. Sodium 182 mg.
  12 grams. Cholesterol 80 mg. Sodium 217 mg.
  13 grams. Cholesterol 73 mg. Sodium 268 mg.
  13 grams. Cholesterol 71 mg. Sodium 66 mg.
  15 minutes of cooking. Turn poultry often to avoid scorching.
  16 chicken breast halves
  16 cocktail toothpick flags of Italy and USA (8 each)
  18-inch rectangle. Cut dough into 6 strips, each about 1
  18 minutes per pound

Converted from "psmid10.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK, PREPARE AND SERVE A MEAL AND INTERIOR DECORATION
HOW TO PREPARE AND SERVE A MEAL
LILLIAN B. LANSDOWN
CONTENTS
HOW TO PREPARE AND SERVE A MEAL
CHAPTER
I. BEFORE THE MEAL IS SERVED
INTERIOR DECORATION
I. LINES AND CURVES
CHAPTER I
BEFORE THE MEAL IS SERVED
IN THE BUTLER'S PANTRY
BEFORE ANYTHING EDIBLE COMES TO THE TABLE
NAPKINS, SILVER, CHINA AND GLASS
DESIRABLE IMPROVEMENTS
CHAPTER II
ENTER THE WAITRESS
THE MAID AT THE TABLE
CHAPTER III
BREAKFAST
BREAKFAST FRUIT
CEREALS
TOAST
BACON
EGGS
COFFEE
FOR THE CHILDREN
CHAPTER IV
LUNCHEONS
THE INFORMAL LUNCHEON
THE FORMAL LUNCHEON
THE FORMAL LUNCHEON MENU
CHAPTER V
THE INFORMAL (HOME) DINNER
TWELVE MENUS FOR GOOD FAMILY DINNERS
CHAPTER VI
THE FORMAL DINNER
THE WHAT'S WHAT OF A FORMAL DINNER
THE COURSES
A GOOD FRUIT COCKTAIL RECIPE
THREE FORMAL DINNER MENUS
CHAPTER VII
AFTERNOON TEAS
THE INFORMAL TEA
THE FORMAL TEA
CHAPTER VIII
SUPPERS
THE LATE SUPPER
CHAPTER IX
OUTSIDE THE EIGHTEENTH AMENDMENT
SHERRY OR MADEIRA
SAUTERNE OR RHINE WINE
CLARET
CHAMPAGNE, BURGUNDY OR PORT
CORDIALS AND LIQUEURS
CHAPTER X
CARVING HINTS
CHAPTER XI
PLANNING A MENU
SOUP
HORS D'OEVRES
FISH
ENTREES
SALADS
DESSERTS
THE ROASTS
CHAPTER XII
MENUS FOR A THANKSGIVING--A CHRISTMAS AND A LENTEN DINNER
THANKSGIVING DINNER
CHRISTMAS DINNER
LENTEN DINNER
HOW TO PREPARE A MEAL
INTERIOR DECORATION
CHAPTER I
LINES AND CURVES
CURVED LINES
BROKEN LINES
VERTICAL LINES
CHAPTER II
FORM, COLOR AND PROPORTION
OBLONG
THE SQUARE
THE TRIANGLE
CURVED FORMS
COLOR
PROPORTION
CHAPTER III
INDIVIDUAL ROOMS OF THE HOUSE
THE DINING ROOM AND "WORK ROOMS"
WORKING ROOMS VERSUS LIVING ROOMS
CHAPTER IV
LIVING ROOM, DRAWING ROOM AND LIBRARY
CHAPTER V
BED ROOM, NURSERY AND PLAY ROOM
NURSERY AND PLAY ROOM
CHAPTER VI
SOME HINTS ANENT PERIOD FURNITURE
CONCLUSION
END OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK, PREPARE AND SERVE A MEAL AND INTERIOR DECORATION
PROJECT GUTENBERG LITERARY ARCHIVE FOUNDATION
START**THE SMALL PRINT!**FOR PUBLIC DOMAIN EBOOKS**START
BEFORE!* YOU USE OR READ THIS EBOOK
ABOUT PROJECT GUTENBERG-TM EBOOKS
LIMITED WARRANTY; DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES
THIS EBOOK IS OTHERWISE PROVIDED TO YOU "AS-IS". NO OTHER
INDEMNITY
WHAT IF YOU WANT TO SEND MONEY EVEN IF YOU DON'T HAVE TO?

Converted from "scckg10.txt" on 23-Feb-2008 by FOOD-Search
START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK SCHOOL AND HOME COOKING
SCHOOL AND HOME COOKING
BY
CARLOTTA C. GREER HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF FOODS AND HOUSEHOLD
PREFACE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
FOREWORD
DIVISION ONE
INTRODUCTION
DIVISION TWO
BODY-REGULATING FOOD--WATER
RELATED WORK
DIVISION THREE
BODY-BUILDING AND BODY-REGULATING FOODS,--RICH IN ASH (MINERAL MATTER)
RELATED WORK
LESSON
DIVISION FOUR
ENERGY-GIVING OR FUEL FOODS,--RICH IN CARBOHYDRATES
RELATED WORK
DIVISION FIVE
ENERGY-GIVING OR FUEL FOODS,--RICH IN FATS AN OILS
RELATED WORK
DIVISION SIX
ENERGY-GIVING AND BODY-BUILDING FOODS,--RICH IN PROTEIN
RELATED WORK
DIVISION SEVEN
HEALTH AND GROWTH-PROMOTING FOODS,--RICH IN VITAMINES
RELATED WORK
DIVISION EIGHT
FLAVORING MATERIALS: FOOD ADJUNCTS
RELATED WORK
DIVISION NINE
FOOD COMBINATIONS
RELATED WORK
DIVISION TEN
QUICK BREADS: POUR BATTERS
RELATED WORK
DIVISION ELEVEN
QUICK BREADS: DROP BATTERS
RELATED WORK
DIVISION TWELVE
QUICK BREADS: SOFT DOUGHS
RELATED WORK
DIVISION THIRTEEN
YEAST BREADS: STIFF DOUGHS
RELATED WORK
DIVISION FOURTEEN
CAKE
RELATED WORK
DIVISION FIFTEEN
PASTRY
RELATED WORK
DIVISION SIXTEEN
FROZEN DESSERTS
RELATED WORK
DIVISION SEVENTEEN
FOOD PRESERVATION
RELATED WORK
DIVISION EIGHTEEN
SUPPLEMENTARY
APPENDIX
INDEX
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
FOREWORD
SCHOOL AND HOME COOKING
DIVISION ONE
INTRODUCTION
LESSON I
BAKED APPLES--DISH-WASHING
QUESTIONS
LESSON II
MEASUREMENTS--STUFFED AND SCALLOPED TOMATOES
STUFFED TOMATOES
QUESTIONS
LESSON III
FUELS AND COMBUSTION--SAUTED AND BAKED SQUASH
DRAFT; OXYGEN.
QUESTIONS
LESSON IV
SCALLOPED CORN
QUESTIONS
LESSON V
GAS RANGES--SCALLOPED FRUIT
SCALLOPED APPLES
HARD SAUCE
SCALLOPED BANANAS
QUESTIONS
LESSON VI
STOVES AND HEATING DEVICES--STUFFED PEPPERS, BUTTERSCOTCH APPLES
QUESTIONS
DIVISION TWO
BODY-REGULATING FOOD: WATER
LESSON VII
WATER AND BEVERAGES (A)
TOASTED WAFERS AND CHEESE
QUESTIONS
LESSON VIII
WATER AND BEVERAGES (B)
FILTERED COFFEE
OATMEAL COOKIES
QUESTIONS
RELATED WORK
LESSON IX
LESSON X
AFTERNOON TEA
COCONUT SWEETMEATS
DIVISION THREE
BODY-BUILDING AND BODY-REGULATING FOODS, RICH IN ASH (MINERAL MATTER)
LESSON XI
FRESH VEGETABLES (A)
BEETS
SCALLOPED TOMATOES WITH ONIONS
BROILED TOMATOES
QUESTIONS
LESSON XII
FRESH VEGETABLES (B)
TABLE
MASHED TURNIPS
BUTTERED CARROTS
QUESTIONS
LESSON XIII
FRESH FRUITS
FRUIT SAUCES
STEWED FRUITS
RHUBARB SAUCE
QUESTIONS
RELATED WORK
LESSON XIV
REVIEW: MEAL COOKING
LESSON XV
DIVISION FOUR
ENERGY-GIVING OR FUEL FOODS,--RICH IN CARBOHYDRATES
LESSON XVI
SUGAR: DIGESTION OF SUGAR
PEANUT CANDY
QUESTIONS
LESSON XVII
SUGAR-RICH FRUITS: DRIED FRUITS (A)
PRUNES
APRICOTS
MIXED FRUIT SAUCE
QUESTIONS
LESSON XVIII
SUGAR-RICH FRUITS: DRIED FRUITS (B)
PRUNE PUDDING
DATE PUDDING
QUESTIONS
LESSON XIX
CEREALS: STARCH AND CELLULOSE
ROLLED OATS OR WHEAT
CREAM OF WHEAT OR WHEATENA
QUESTIONS
LESSON XX
CEREALS: RICE (A)
ENERGY-GIVING OR FUEL FOODS
EXPERIMENT 20 THE DIFFERENCE IN NUTRITIVE VALUE OF BOILED RICE AND RICE
QUESTIONS
LESSON XXI
CEREALS: RICE (B)
RICE PUDDING
CARAMEL SAUCE
QUESTIONS
LESSON XXII
CEREALS AND THE FIRELESS COOKER
CORN-MEAL MUSH
CORN-MEAL MUSH FOR "FRYING"
RICE AND TOMATOES
QUESTIONS
LESSON XXIII
CEREALS FOR FRYING OR BAKING
"FRIED" OR BAKED MUSH
FRENCH TOAST
SIRUP
QUESTIONS
LESSON XXIV
POWDERED CEREALS USED FOR THICKENING
BLANC MANGE
CHOCOLATE CORN-STARCH PUDDING
QUESTIONS
LESSON XXV
TOAST: DIGESTION OF STARCH
CREAM TOAST
QUESTIONS
LESSON XXVI
ROOT VEGETABLES (A)
BOILED POTATOES
WHITE SAUCE FOR VEGETABLES
CRUMBS FOR SCALLOPED DISHES
QUESTIONS
LESSON XXVII
ROOT VEGETABLES (B)
SWEET POTATOES
TOMATO SAUCE
QUESTIONS
LESSON XXVIII
ROOT VEGETABLES (C)
APPLE TAPIOCA
RHUBARB TAPIOCA
LEMON SAUCE
PROPORTIONS OF INGREDIENTS FOR SAUCES
QUESTIONS
LESSON XXIX
STARCHY FOODS COOKED AT HIGH TEMPERATURE
POP CORN
BUTTERED POP CORN NO. I
BUTTERED POP CORN NO. II
STUFFED POTATOES
QUESTIONS
RELATED WORK
LESSON XXX
THE TABLE
STYLES OF SERVING
METHODS OF SERVING WITH A MAID
METHOD OF SERVING WITHOUT A MAID
QUESTIONS
LESSON XXXI
COOKING AND SERVING BREAKFAST
LESSON XXXII
REVIEW: MEAL COOKING
MENU
LESSON XXXIII
SUGGESTED AIMS
DIVISION FIVE
ENERGY-GIVING OR FUEL FOODS,--RICH IN FATS AND OILS
LESSON XXXIV
FAT AS A FRYING MEDIUM
EXPERIMENT 31: TEMPERATURE AT WHICH FATS AND OILS DECOMPOSE OR "BURN."
EXPERIMENT 33: THE TEMPERATURE OF FAT FOR FRYING (CLASS EXPERIMENT).
QUESTIONS
LESSON XXXV
FAT AS A FRYING MEDIUM--FOOD FATS
FISH BALLS
QUESTIONS
LESSON XXXVI
FAT AS A FRYING MEDIUM--DIGESTION OF FAT
POTATO CROQUETTES
QUESTIONS
LESSON XXXVII
FAT SAVING
RICE CUTLETS WITH CHEESE SAUCE
SOAP
QUESTIONS
RELATED WORK
LESSON XXXVIII
DINING ROOM COURTESY
THE VALUE OF GOOD TABLE MANNERS
SUGGESTIONS CONCERNING TABLE MANNERS
LESSON XXXIX
COOKING AND SERVING BREAKFAST
LESSON XL
REVIEW: MEAL COOKING
MENU
LESSON XLI
SUGGESTED AIMS
DIVISION SIX
ENERGY-GIVING AND BODY-BUILDING FOODS,--RICH IN PROTEIN
LESSON XLII
SOFT-COOKED EGGS
QUESTIONS
LESSON XLIII
EGGS: DIGESTION OF PROTEIN
POACHED EGG
GOLDENROD EGGS
QUESTIONS
LESSON XLIV
EGGS: OMELETS (A)
EXPERIMENT 42: COMPARISON OF EGGS BEATEN WITH A DOVER EGG BEATER AND WITH
SCRAMBLED EGGS
FOAMY OMELET
QUESTIONS
LESSON XLV
EGGS: OMELETS (B)
WHITE SAUCE OMELET
BAKED OMELET
QUESTIONS
LESSON XLVI
MILK
EXPERIMENT 44: SEPARATION OF MILK INTO FOODSTUFFS.
LESSON XLVII
MILK WITH COCOA AND CHOCOLATE
COCOA
CHOCOLATE
QUESTIONS
LESSON XLVIII
MILK AND CREAM
EXPERIMENT 46: COMPARISON OF THE CONDUCTING POWER OF METAL AND
RICE DAINTY
CREAM OF RICE PUDDING
QUESTIONS
LESSON XLIX
CREAM SOUPS (A)
POTATO SOUP
CROUTONS
QUESTIONS
LESSON L
CREAM SOUPS (B)
CORN SOUP
SOUP STICKS
DRIED BREAD CRUMBS
QUESTIONS
LESSON LI
MILK THICKENED WITH EGG (A)
STEAMED OR BAKED CUSTARD
SOFT CUSTARD
QUESTIONS
LESSON LII
MILK THICKENED WITH EGG (B)
FLOATING ISLAND
QUESTIONS
LESSON LIII
MILK THICKENED WITH EGG (C)
APRICOT DAINTY
CUSTARD SAUCE
QUESTIONS
LESSON LIV
MILK THICKENED WITH EGG AND STARCHY MATERIALS (A)
BUTTERSCOTCH TAPIOCA
CREAM OF POTATO SOUP
QUESTIONS
LESSON LV
MILK THICKENED WITH EGG AND STARCHY MATERIALS (B)
CORN CUSTARD
CHEESE PUDDING
QUESTIONS
LESSON LVI
MILK THICKENED WITH EGG AND STARCHY MATERIALS (C)
BREAD PUDDING
CHOCOLATE BREAD PUDDING
VANILLA SAUCE
CHOCOLATE SAUCE
QUESTIONS
LESSON LVII
CHEESE (A)
JUNKET "CUSTARD"
COTTAGE CHEESE
QUESTIONS
LESSON LVIII
CHEESE (B)
MACARONI AND CHEESE
QUESTIONS
LESSON LIX
STRUCTURE OF BEEF--METHODS OF COOKING TENDER CUTS
BROILING
PAN-BROILING
ROASTING (BAKING)
QUESTIONS
LESSON LX
BEEF: METHODS OF COOKING TENDER CUTS (APPLIED TO CHOPPED BEEF) (A)
CHOPPED STEAK
BEEF LOAF
QUESTIONS
LESSON LXI
BEEF: METHODS OF COOKING TENDER CUTS (APPLIED TO CHOPPED BEEF) (B)
STUFFED MEAT ROAST
BROWN SAUCE
QUESTIONS
LESSON LXII
BEEF: METHODS OF COOKING TOUGH CUTS (A)
BEEF STOCK
EXPLANATION OF FIGURE 56. CUTS OF BEEF
HIND QUARTER
FORE QUARTER
QUESTIONS
LESSON LXIII
BEEF: METHODS OF COOKING TOUGH CUTS (B)
VEGETABLE SOUP
BAKED HASH
LESSON LXIV
BEEF: METHODS OF COOKING TOUGH CUTS (C)
ROLLED BEEFSTEAK
BEEF STEW
QUESTIONS
LESSON LXV
BEEF: METHODS OF COOKING TOUGH CUTS (D)
SWISS STEAK
POT ROAST
QUESTIONS
LESSON LXVI
BEEF: USES OF COOKED BEEF
SCALLOPED MEAT
QUESTIONS
LESSON LXVII
GELATINE (A)
LEMON JELLY
FRUIT JELLY
WHIPPED JELLY
QUESTIONS
LESSON LXVIII
GELATINE (B)
SNOW PUDDING
PINEAPPLE BAVARIAN CREAM
QUESTIONS
LESSON LXIX
FISH (A)
SALMON TIMBALE OR LOAF
CASSEROLE OF FISH
LESSON LXX
FISH (B)
BAKED FISH
STUFFING FOR FISH
SAUCE FOR FISH
QUESTIONS
LESSON LXXI
FISH (C)
PLANKED (BROILED) FISH
FRIED OR SAUTEED FISH
FISH CHOWDER
QUESTIONS
LESSON LXXII
LEGUMES (A)
BOSTON BAKED BEANS
SALTED PEANUTS
QUESTIONS
LESSON LXXIII
LEGUMES (B)
BEAN SOUP
SPLIT PEA SOUP
GREEN PEA SOUP
CRISP CRACKERS
QUESTIONS
LESSON LXXIV
LEGUMES (C)
BEAN ROAST
PEANUT BUTTER SOUP
QUESTIONS
RELATED WORK
LESSON LXXV
COST OF FOOD
LESSON LXXVI
COOKING AND SERVING A BREAKFAST
LESSON LXXVII
REVIEW: MEAL COOKING
MENU
LESSON LXXVIII
DIVISION SEVEN
HEALTH AND GROWTH-PROMOTING FOODS,--RICH IN VITAMINES
LESSON LXXIX
VITAMINES--VEGETABLES OF DELICATE FLAVOR
SPINACH
SCALLOPED SPINACH WITH CHEESE
QUESTIONS
LESSON LXXX
VITAMINES--VEGETABLES OF STRONG FLAVOR
CABBAGE (COOKED IN LITTLE WATER)
CREAMED CABBAGE (STEAMED)
ONIONS (COOKED IN MUCH WATER)
QUESTIONS
LESSON LXXXI
SALADS (A)
LETTUCE FOR SALAD
FRENCH DRESSING
COLESLAW
CARROT AND CABBAGE SALAD
QUESTIONS
LESSON LXXXII
SALADS (B)
STUFFED EGGS
CREAM SALAD DRESSING
BANANA SALAD
QUESTIONS
LESSON LXXXIII
CLASSIFICATION OF THE FOODSTUFFS
RELATED WORK
LESSON LXXXIV
SELECTING FOOD
LESSON LXXXV
COOKING AND SERVING A LUNCHEON OR SUPPER
LESSON LXXXVI
REVIEW: MEAL COOKING
MENU
LESSON LXXXVII
SUGGESTED AIMS
DIVISION EIGHT
FLAVORING MATERIALS: FOOD ADJUNCTS
LESSON LXXXVIII
FOOD ADJUNCTS--DISHES CONTAINING FOOD ADJUNCTS
CURRY OF KIDNEY BEANS
SPICED BAKED APPLES
SAVORY TOAST
QUESTIONS
RELATED WORK
LESSON LXXXIX
SPENDING FOR FOOD
LESSON XC
COOKING AND SERVING A LUNCHEON OR SUPPER
LESSON XCI
REVIEW: MEAL COOKING
MENU
LESSON XCII
SUGGESTED AIMS
DIVISION NINE
FOOD COMBINATIONS
LESSON XCIII
VEGETABLES WITH SALAD DRESSING (A)
MAYONNAISE DRESSING
SEASONABLE VEGETABLE SALADS
QUESTIONS
LESSON XCIV
VEGETABLES WITH SALAD DRESSING (B)
PERFECTION SALAD
QUESTIONS
FOOD COMBINATIONS
LESSON XCV
FISH SALAD AND SALAD ROLLS
SALMON OR TUNNY SALAD
SALAD ROLLS
QUESTIONS
LESSON XCVI
CREAM OF TOMATO SOUP AND CHEESE STRAWS
CREAM OF TOMATO SOUP
CHEESE STRAWS
QUESTIONS
LESSON XCVII
VEAL AND POTATOES
VEAL CUTLETS (STEAK)
SAUCE FOR CUTLETS
VEAL WITH EGG DRESSING
POTATO PUFF
QUESTIONS
LESSON XCVIII
MUTTON AND LAMB DISHES
FOOD COMBINATIONS
STUFFED SHOULDER OF LAMB
MINT SAUCE
LAMB OR MUTTON IN THE CASSEROLE
QUESTIONS
LESSON XCIX
PORK, VEGETABLES, AND APPLE SAUCE
PORK CHOPS WITH SWEET POTATOES
TURNIPS WITH FRESH PORK
BROILED HAM
BACON
SCALLOPED POTATOES WITH BACON
QUESTIONS
LESSON C
CHICKEN AND RICE
SAUCE FOR CHICKEN
QUESTIONS
LESSON CI
CHICKEN AND PEAS
CHICKEN CROQUETTES
SAUCE
QUESTIONS
LESSON CII
OYSTER DISHES
OYSTER STEW
SCALLOPED OYSTERS
QUESTIONS
LESSON CIII
MEAT-SUBSTITUTE DISHES
COTTAGE CHEESE AND NUT LOAF
SCALLOPED EGGS WITH CHEESE
PEANUT ROAST
QUESTIONS
LESSON CIV
MEAT EXTENDERS AND ONE-DISH MEALS
MUTTON WITH BARLEY
TAMALE PIE
CREOLE STEW
QUESTIONS
RELATED WORK
LESSON CV
MENU-MAKING
QUESTIONS
LESSON CVI
PLANNING, COOKING, AND SERVING A LUNCHEON OR SUPPER
LESSON CVII
REVIEW: MEAL COOKING
MENU
LESSON CVIII
DIVISION TEN
QUICK BREADS: POUR BATTERS
LESSON CIX
LEAVENING WITH STEAM AND AIR. POPOVERS
POPOVERS
QUESTIONS
LESSON CX
LEAVENING WITH BAKING SODA AND SOUR MILK: SPIDER CORN BREAD
SPIDER CORN BREAD
QUESTIONS
LESSON CXI
LEAVENING WITH BAKING SODA, SOUR MILK, AND MOLASSES: GINGERBREAD
GINGERBREAD
QUESTIONS
LESSON CXII
LEAVENING WITH BAKING POWDER: GRIDDLE CAKES
EXPERIMENT 72: EFFECT OF COLD WATER ON A MIXTURE OF CREAM OF TARTAR AND
EXPERIMENT 73: EFFECT OF HOT WATER ON A MIXTURE OF CREAM OF TARTAR AND
EXPERIMENT 76: COMPARISON OF THE TIME OF ACTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF
PLAIN GRIDDLE CAKES
BREAD GRIDDLE CAKES
QUESTIONS
LESSON CXIII
LEAVENING WITH BAKING SODA, SOUR MILK, AND BAKING POWDER: SOUR MILK
CORN-MEAL GRIDDLE CAKES
FRUIT SIRUP
QUESTIONS
LESSON CXIV
LEAVENING WITH BAKING SODA, SOUR MILK, AND CREAM OF TARTAR: STEAMED BROWN
PLAIN BROWN BREAD
BOSTON BROWN BREAD
BUTTER BALLS
QUESTIONS
LESSON CXV
FORMULATING RECIPES--WAFFLES
BAKING SODA AND SOUR MILK
FLOUR AND BAKING POWDER
COARSE WHEAT FLOUR, OR FLOUR (OR MEAL) OTHER THAN WHEAT, AND BAKING POWDER
FLOUR, CREAM OF TARTAR, AND BAKING SODA
COARSE WHEAT FLOUR, OR FLOUR (OR MEAL) OTHER THAN WHEAT, CREAM OF TARTAR
FLOUR AND SALT